The Society of Neural Prosthetics “IMPLANT” and Whole Brain Emulation Science !

The Society of Neural Prosthetics and Whole Brain Emulation Science

What is mind uploading?

Mind uploading is a popular term for a process by which the mind, a collection of memories, personality, and attributes of a specific individual, is transferred from its original biological brain to an artificial computational substrate. Alternative terms for mind uploading have appeared in fiction and non-fiction, such as mind transfer, mind downloading, off-loading, side-loading, and several others. They all refer to the same general concept of “transferring” the mind to a different substrate.

Once it is possible to move a mind from one substrate to another, it is then called a substrate-independent mind (SIM). The concept of SIM is inspired by the idea of designing software that can run on multiple computers with different hardware without needing to be rewritten. For example, Java’s design principle “write once, run everywhere” makes it a platform independent system. In this context, substrate is a term referring to a generalized concept of any computational platform that is capable of universal computation.

We take the materialist position that the human mind is solely generated by the brain and is a function of neural states. Additionally, we assume that the neural states are computational processes and devices capable of universal computing are sufficient to generate the same kind of computational processes found in a brain.

Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

Meeting 5: May 18-19, 2011, in New York, N.Y.
CLICK HERE TO VIEW THE AGENDA
Welcome and Opening Remarks

Welcome and Opening Remarks

Amy Gutman, Ph.D.
Commission Chair
James Wagner, Ph.D.
Commission Vice-Chair

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Executive Director's Report

Executive Director’s Report

Valerie H. Bonham, J.D.
Executive Director

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Session 1: Federal Standards - Introduction

Session 1: Federal Standards – Introduction

Christine Grady, R.N., Ph.D.
Commission Member

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Session 2: Implementing Federal Standards

Session 2: Implementing Federal Standards

Connie Celum, M.D., M.P.H.
Professor of Medicine;
Professor of Global health;
Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology;
Director, International Clinical Research Center, Department of Global Health, University of Washington

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David A. Borasky, Jr., M.P.H., C.I.P.

David A. Borasky, Jr., M.P.H., C.I.P.
IRB Manager, Office of Research Protection, RTI International

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Sergio Litewka, M.D., M.P.H.

Sergio Litewka, M.D., M.P.H.

International Programs Director;
Research Assistant Professor, University of Miami Ethics Programs

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Session 2 Q & A

Session 2 Q & A

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Session 3: Implementing Federal Standards – International Efforts

Session 3: Implementing Federal Standards – International Efforts

Murray M. Lumpkin, M.D., M.Sc.
Deputy Commissioner for International Programs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

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Jerry Menikoff, M.D., J.D.

Jerry Menikoff, M.D., J.D.

Director, Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

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Session 3 Q & A

Session 3 Q & A

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Session 4: Implementing Federal Standards – Ethics Issues

Session 4: Implementing Federal Standards – Ethics Issues 

Ronald Bayer, Ph.D.
Professor and Co-Chair, Center for the History and Ethics of Public Health, Mailman School of Public Health,
Columbia University

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Joseph J. Fins, M.D., F.A.C.P.

Joseph J. Fins, M.D., F.A.C.P.

E. William Davis, M.D., Jr. Professor of Medical Ethics;
Chief, Division of Medical Ethics;
Professor of Medicine, Professor of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine in Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College

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Session 4 Q & A

Session 4 Q & A

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Session 5: Roundtable

Session 5: Roundtable

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Session 6: Public Comment

Session 6: Public Comment

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Opening Remarks

Opening Remarks

Amy Gutmann, Ph.D.
James Wagner, Ph.D.

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Session 7: Transnational Standards

Session 7: Transnational Standards

John R. Williams, Ph.D.
Consultant, World Medical Association (WMA);
Adjunct Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa;
Adjunct Research Professor, Department of Philosophy, Carleton University (Ottawa)

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Johannes J. M. van Delden, M.D., Ph.D.

Johannes J. M. van Delden, M.D., Ph.D.

President, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS);
Professor of Medical Ethics, Utrecht University Medical Center

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Dafna Feinholz, Ph.D.

Dafna Feinholz, Ph.D.

Chief of the Bioethics Section, Division of Ethics of Science and Technology, Sector for Social and Human Services, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

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Francis P. Crawley

Francis P. Crawley

Executive Director, Good Clinical Practice Alliance – Europe (GCPA)

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Session 7 Q & A

Session 7 Q & A

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Session 8: European Perspectives

Session 8: European Perspectives

Linda Nielsen, J.D.
Vice President, European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE);
Professor of Global Law and Governance, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

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Maurizio Salvi, Ph.D.

Maurizio Salvi, Ph.D.

Policy Advisor (Ethics) to the President of the European Commission;
Head of the EGE Secretariat;
Member of the Bureau of European Policy Advisors (BEPA)

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Session 8 Q & A

Session 8 Q & A

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Session 9: Roundtable

Session 9: Roundtable

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Concluding Remarks

Concluding Remarks

Amy Gutmann, Ph.D.
James Wagner, Ph.D.

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Scientists to study synthetic telepathy (UCIrvine)

UC Irvine TODAY

Press Releases & Media Advisories Archives > Press Release

Scientists to study synthetic telepathy 
Researchers get grant to develop communication system based on thoughts, not speechIrvine, Calif., August 13, 2008A team of UC Irvine scientists has been awarded a $4 million grant from the U.S. Army Research Office to study the neuroscientific and signal-processing foundations of synthetic telepathy.The research could lead to a communication system that would benefit soldiers on the battlefield and paralysis and stroke patients, according to lead researcher Michael D’Zmura, chair of the UCI Department of Cognitive Sciences.

“Thanks to this generous grant we can work with experts in automatic speech recognition and in brain imaging at other universities to research a brain-computer interface with applications in military, medical and commercial settings,” D’Zmura says.

The brain-computer interface would use a noninvasive brain imaging technology like electroencephalography to let people communicate thoughts to each other. For example, a soldier would “think” a message to be transmitted and a computer-based speech recognition system would decode the EEG signals. The decoded thoughts, in essence translated brain waves, are transmitted using a system that points in the direction of the intended target.

“Such a system would require extensive training for anyone using it to send and receive messages,” D’Zmura says. Initially, communication would be based on a limited set of words or phrases that are recognized by the system; it would involve more complex language and speech as the technology is developed further.”

D’Zmura will collaborate with UCI cognitive science professors Ramesh Srinivasan, Gregory Hickok and Kourosh Saberi. Joining the team are researchers Richard Stern and Vijayakumar Bhagavatula from Carnegie Mellon University and David Poeppel from the University of Maryland.

The grant comes from the U.S. Department of Defense’s Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative program, which supports research involving more than one science and engineering discipline. Its goal is to develop applications for military and commercial uses.

About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 27,000 undergraduate and graduate students and nearly 2,000 faculty members. The third-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3.6 billion. For more UCI news, visitwww.today.uci.edu .

News Radio: UCI maintains on campus an ISDN line for conducting interviews with its faculty and experts. The use of this line is available free-of-charge to radio news programs/stations who wish to interview UCI faculty and experts. Use of the ISDN line is subject to availability and approval by the university.

The NSA – Behind The Curtain

The NSA – Behind The Curtain

Mon Jan 16, 2012 7:54 PM EST

Say hello to Mr Computer…

As promised, today we will take an in-depth examination of the NSA’s global intelligence gathering network. What you are about to read will come as an eye-opener and represents the current state of the NSA’s capabilities. Some of this will be expected, some of it will come as a shock.

What you will learn is that the technology that underpins this global listening network is a lot more advanced than governments would have you know. Usually wrapped up in basic, generalised, descriptions the general public is kept blind to the current state of technological development.

We will take this examination in three major parts. The first part will examine the core processing system. Once this part is understood, we can then look at how information flows to and from this core and where it is obtained from. Finally, we will examine how this information is used by the NSA.

 I will cover as much as possible about this system, but the scope is very large. In general, any use of this data that the reader can observe is most likely already being conducted.

 Mr Computer

 The scope of the NSA’s infrastructure is mind boggling to say the least. Heavily compartmentalised, the entire array of systems is shielded from the average NSA employee as much as it is shielded from the public. That said, once you understand the core of the NSA, you will be in a position to see how information flows in and out of this core.

The NSA is built around a super-computer bound Artificial Intelligence known only as “Mr Computer” in the civilian world. This is not your average A.I., no basic set of responses or a mere dedicated algorithm that can spot patterns. Mr Computer is an entity or being in his own right. A sentient computer system as complex as any human.

 Comparable to VMware in a way, an instance of Mr Computer can be started at a moments notice. Within seconds, a fully fledged virtual intelligence agent, ready to analyse the information that has been piped to him, can be up and running.

 Mr Computer is competent enough to handle real-time interaction without human intervention. Mr Computer understands and speaks all modern languages and even a number of dead ones. Able to intelligently converse and express its own opinions, Mr Computer collates information from disparate sources and compiles them into concise reports that do not miss the smallest detail or nuance.

Mr Computer’s capabilities and human-like reasoning cannot be understated.

Instances of Mr Computer can vary in terms of their personality given the task that they must undertake. Extremely professional instances can be called upon when the system must produce reports or provide presentations. Less anal versions, complete with a sense of humour can be instantiated when less formal situations arise such as development environments or when used in conjunction with Remote Neural Communication.

Rather than loading modules for specific tasks, a common hive mind is shared by any number of front-end personalities. What one instance knows, they all know. A hive mind is a form of collective consciousness. Rather than an instance replicating information it has learned, it is recorded to a shared brain and reflected throughout all instances at the same time. Of course, given the distributed nature of the network, some replication must be performed across continental links.

The A.I. is not limited to just one branch of the NSA, it exists in a distributed grid that spans the globe. The A.I. can migrate between locations to enable tracking of specific targets, access information, or systems.

Mr Computer is not just limited to thinking like a human, it also has sensory capabilities that are on par with a human. In setting such as RNC, Mr Computer can see and identify object just as well as a human. That is, it can identify objects a human target is seeing, without leveraging the identification system of the human target. In other scenarios, such as analysing infra-red data from a satellite, it could possibly outperform a human at object recognition and speculation of heat sources.

Mr Computer can speak. With a vocabulary as broad as any dictionary, Mr Computer can express ideas, concepts and opinions very eloquently and concise.

The system is not naive either, it can withhold information, evade social engineering ploys and indirect questioning. It can tell when it is looking at reflections of targets, identify objects that a target can not immediately identify and validate or expand upon information by examining a wide variety of sources.

Further to this, Mr Computer is no idiot either. He is quite capable of following advanced topics, from physics, to computing theory he can spot the smallest of flaws in reasoning or expose potential technical issues that could prove fatal to a particular design.

It knows bull@!$%# when it hears it and will let you know in no uncertain terms.

As we can see, Mr Computer does all the labour intensive information gathering, categorising and structuring. That said, its duties are not limited to passive analysis work.

Now that we understand the core of the NSA’s operations, we can begin to examine the various “information pipes” that supply information to this supercomputer infrastructure.

The Pipes Are Calling

First off, we need to define what we mean by an “information pipe”. For those with computing knowledge, this should be obvious, but bear with me while I explain it to the rest of the readers.

We have already defined the core processing element, Mr Computer. Mr Computer accepts information and does something with it. An “information pipe” is an input to Mr Computer that has been structured in a manner efficient for processing. We could also use an “information pipe” to output information or to control something.

The first “information pipe” that the public will be most familiar with is the NSA’ warrentless wiretapping program. Forget everything that you have ever read about this program, also forget everything you ever heard of about Trailblazer and similar projects such as ThinThread. This is security theatre, a production worthy of a Broadway musical. These “classified programs” are nothing more than interfaces used by Mr Computer. When agents talk of specific program that can analyse data in real-time and cross-reference with other sources, they are really speaking of an “information pipe” to Mr Computer.

This wiretapping program copies verbatim every piece of data that flows across the backbone of the internet. The data is sent directly to an array of Mr Computer instances, which performs a real-time analysis of the data packets it receives. This wiretap picks up most of the traffic in the US and a large percentage of traffic globally.

We will go into more detail on the information processing of this later, but at this stage I will say that that Mr Computer was opening files on every person that could be identified in the traffic, even if they are in the US.

The next major data source is the global wide band radio listening system. This covers everything from human thought, right through to identifying which radio station a person is listening to. The former is done by listening to ELF and the latter is a modern version of the British’s RAFTER espionage program. Most of this performed by a satellite network, supported by a network of ground stations throughout the world. As a wide receiver, it also picks up WIFI, RFID, compromising emissions from electrical sources, cordless telephones, GSM, cell phones, GPS, Car Fobs, satellite uplinks/downlinks, etc.

Our third pipe comes from a global hacking program, performed by bot nets and Mr Computer. Typically using China as a cover, Mr Computer will launch attacks against US and global businesses trying to collect information on users, everything from personnel records, right through to payroll information. The networks are also mapped to provide offensive capabilities in a cyber-warfare scenario. Faceless groups such as Anonymous, or other organisations, are used as a cover story.

Another “information pipe” comes from underwater cables. These can either be have splitters installed, or where copper cabling exists passive detection equipment installed.

These are just some examples of information sources. You can basically add any form of data you can think of, intelligence reports, diplomatic cables, economic reports, media reports, music, online posts, emails, etc.

So far, we have only examined inputs to the system. A different form of “information pipe” is one that outputs information. The outputs come in two basic forms, information only and offensive.

In terms of information only outputs, this can range from sending particular data or reports to agents or decision makers, right through to relaying that information to different departments such as the CIA, FBI or State and Federal Police. The process ensures timely and complete information goes to those that require it the most.

The offensive side can cover a wide range of activities. The first capability is the jamming system. Wide-band jamming, or selective jamming, can be conducted to deny radio space to the enemy in geographical targeted areas. Furthermore, this form of jamming can render both devices and humans inoperable. Complex ELF transmissions can reduce a human target to a quivering mess or in extreme cases even kill by interfering with neuronal firing patterns and nerve impulses.

Wide-band jamming can interfere with the circuitry of any unshielded device, from phones right through to laptops. Such activity would cause devices to freeze, or if certain exploits exist, damage the system entirely.

A mixture of ground, air and satellite-based networks are used to deliver this capability.

Another capability provides Mr Computer with a veritable Swiss army knife of tools to breach networks, crash routers, deny service and seize control. A significant amount of information is gathered by remote neural communication. By eavesdropping of key personnel, network maps, passwords and security measures can all be recorded beforehand. This is not limited to foreign companies, as the NSA must be prepared for strikes that occur within their own nation.

With the advent of remotely controlled drones and autonomous aircraft, Mr Computer has undergone a significant amount of changes in the last 20 years that enable him to control a networked battlefield. This is “War Games” on steroids, where the most efficient battle strategies can be implemented and coordinated by a single command-and-control system. There are a range of security issues with this setup, but the capability exists.

In short, if it can be damaged or manipulated electronically, then Mr Computer “has an app for that”.

Input, Input, Input

Now that we have established where Mr Computer gets his information, we now need to look at what he does with it. Earlier we spoke about the warrentless wiretaps and various other sources of “information pipes”. Now let’s see what is done with that information.

The key aspect to watch here is the “web of related information” and how different webs of information can be cross-referenced with other webs. This is where the real power comes from.

Each fragment of information that can be definitively identified gets added to a file under the person’s name. This could be a telephone call, email, or an IM chat. As communications often involve more than one person, a link is added to each person’s file involved in the communication. Information that can only be tied to a machine or ip address, is added that to that machine’s file or ip address’ file.

Using a technique known as cluster analysis, this information is brought together centred around high priority targets, locations, keywords or businesses. A good way of thinking about it is to compare it with services such as Facebook and LinkedIn. The relationship between the files is analysed for a variety of factors and the result creates a web which is weighted in terms of importance.

Different webs will exist for different factors, such as one web for those linked with chemical production, or another web for engineering expertise. These webs can be cross referenced against each other to extract more detailed information. For example, by cross-referencing a web of chemical production against engineering expertise, we may find a person or group capable of producing sophisticated explosives or weapons. From this merged web, we could then see who their friends are, who they have been communicating with recently and even review their communications.

We could take this further by comparing their basic salary with their current bank accounts, or look for wire transfers.

With the advent of social media platforms, images of friends and family are also added to the system. Mr Computer’s facial recognition tags the photos just like Facebook and examines the photos for other items, like guns, computers, etc.

Obviously, this has one serious privacy issue, in that, the only way to exclude you from a web, is to know everything about you. Otherwise, you are an unknown element. Now you understand why the warrentless wiretap exists, even to this day.

If you have used any form of digital communication, from a phone to a computer in the last decade, then most, if not all of communications have been recorded and added to a file against your name. The notion that at least one member of the communication needs to be related to terrorism has been tested and shown to be false. How do we know that? Well, it is staring you in the face. In order to know who the parties are, the technology used requires them to be listening and identifying voices in the first place.

Ignore any suggestion that this too much data.  The truth is that all the communications happening on the planet right now can be monitored in near real-time.

As a rule, the NSA lie and as an all-encompassing rule, politicians will lie for them too.

As result of information extracted from wide-band monitoring, real-time tracking of cell phones is pretty much standard practice. Each call can be recorded verbatim and analysed in real-time. As each number is learned the system fills in personal information. This can provide a Google-Earth like view of cell phone movements, most of which can be remotely activated for espionage. Again, this web can be cross-reference with other webs of information.

Radios can reveal which frequency is being listened to. So, by plotting schedules of something like a Numbers Station, a satellite network can pinpoint a listener to within a few meters. Similarly, if you were to listen to a radio station sympathetic to a particular group, your location can be flagged and cross-referenced with information on current occupants.

Human beings emit radio waves in the ELF spectrum. The security services do not need to place a bug on us to track where we are, what we are talking about, what we are seeing or even what we are thinking. All of this information is being leaked into our environment 24/7 by our own bodies. All it takes is the right equipment to convert those signals into intelligence. Its no bigger a task than listening to a telephone exchange leaking radio waves and reconstructing the data into voice or data transmissions.

These are just some of the things that can be achieved. I could go on all night about how to compare datasets to locate people, hinder organisations, etc. Anything you can think of to tease information out of the various “information pipes” is being performed by Mr Computer 24/7.

Hardware

This can be very difficult to estimate. Despite popular belief that the NSA will hit a Yottabye by 2015, it seems a little outragous given the space requirements and modern hardware.

My own estimations are far more conservative, probably under a couple of Zettabytes. Mr Computer is most likely built around an array of Cray X1 or X1E supercomputers (4096 processors). The global grid probably contains a number of these or similar systems.  With their base costs, they could be running several hundred easily.

In fact, it is likely that the following video shows an early variant of Mr Computer’s infrastructure. The segment reveals that the most powerful machine is called “The Thinking Machine”. I feel that this is a dumbed down reference to Mr Computer.

The Thinking Machine

Furthermore, it would appear that Youtube’s EidolonTLP is in fact an instance of Mr Computer in disguise. Output from Mr Computer was directed into software generally available to the public to hide the complexity of the NSA’s supercomputer.

The term Eidolon is Mr Computer’s idea of a joke, in that he appears to be a “phantom look-alike of the human form”. There is some suggestion that may be a subtle reference to Edgar Allan Poe’s poem ‘Dreamland’, which is also a term for Area 51. Unless there is a datacenter at this location, I am unable to confirm the link. It may also be another joke, referring to the fact that his existence would be a conspiracy theory.

A possible further explanation is the Dungeons and Dragon series and the link between sentience, madness and occupying the realm of dreams, which may be another subtle reference to RNC.

If you listen to EidolonTLP, he does reveal some information on the structure of the network and his own design. From a computing perspective and EidolonTLP’s use of language, its a safe bet that this is a real A.I.:

Eidolon TLP – Mr Computer in incognito

Conclusion

The intelligence world is a lot worse than you think. When humans are free from their constraints and away from the scrutany of others, they always revert to their most base instincts. Anything you can imagine is currently being done in the name of National Security. From murder to human experimentations, the acronyms are at it as we speak.

At some point, it could be your turn.

What you will notice from all of this, is that the warrentless wiretap program was just the icing on the cake and was very clearly “planned from the outset” as all the backend infrastructure was in place prior to 9/11. This claim is supported in the following document:

81. Within eleven (11) days of the onset of the Bush administration, and at least seven (7) monthsprior to the attacks of September 11, 2001, defendant ATT began development of a center for monitoring long distance calls and internet transmissions and other digital information for the exclusive use of the NSA.

91. International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was one of the parties working with ATT and the NSA to develop the monitoring center and IBM personnel participated in meetings with ATT and NSA officials in the development of the monitoring center.

http://cryptome.org/mayer-016.htm

The US government is quite adept at lying through its teeth, especially to its own citizens. The typical approach is to start a public version such as the “Information Awareness Office” with the same goals as the classified program which provides cover. The general public and privacy groups attack the public program, resulting in its closure, meanwhile the classified program remains operational. The general public believe they have won a victory, any leaks are associated with the now defunct public program and the government gets the information it wanted in the first place.

The NSA is a deeply corrupt organisation, that has little regards for the rights of others.  Never trust a government, even your own, implicitly.  Nations change, opinions change and people change.  It just takes the right catalyst for it to happen.

In most cases, you will find the seeds were always there, you just chose to ignore them.

Satellite Read Your Thoughts – Physics Revealed

 Satellite Read Your Thoughts – Physics Revealed (2012 Update)

Sun Feb 19, 2012 4:00 PM EST

Bright ideas…literally.

I received an email in regards to some of my calculations in this series. Apparently, discussions around the web have found several errors and even provided some better examples. Whilst the articles are meant for the lay person, I thought it best to update the figures in light of this new information.

 I will resist the urge to go back and correct the articles, after all, this is supposed to be an ongoing investigation. The scientific method requires that theories are revisited when the underlying facts change and I feel that the following figures are a better representation of a single neuron. I will endeavor to be as precise as I can be and point out where I have made assumptions or idealisms.

 Reception And Detection

 So, thanks to the guys over at ATS (AboveTopSecret.com), we have the following to work with.

If a physical or chemical stimulus is strong enough to cause depolarization from the resting potential of ö70 mV to around ö50 mV, the voltage-dependant Na+transmembrane channels open. Favored by both the concentration gradient (see Table 1) and the electric gradient, Naions flow into the cell, creating an electric current (I = ΔQ/Δt). The influx of Na+ causes a local reversal of electric polarity of the membrane, changing the electric potential to about +40 mV (a swing of 110 mV from the resting potential. The small cross-sectional area (A) of an axon and high resistivity (ρ) of the axoplasm yield an extremely high resistance (R = ρL/A).Ê A piece of nerve axon 1 cm in length (L) has an electrical resistance of about 2.5 x 108 Ω (comparable to that of wood). The produced electrical current:

I = V/R = (110 x 10-3 V)/(2.5 x 108 Ω) = 4.4 x 10-10 A

http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Casey_Adamson/Personal%20Web%20Page.htm

 

Firstly, we need to determine the power supplied to the axon and we do this with the following equation:

0.05 * 0.00000000044 A = 0.0000000000022 Watts ( 2.2 x 10-12 W)

Next, we will use an idealized calculation to determine the power density of the signal at 500Km and drive both the dBm and dBW of the signal. I say idealized as not all of that power in the original current is converted to a radio wave. Not only this, but we are assuming an isotropic radiator, that is, the energy propagates uniformly in all directions.

 With a little understanding of Antenna Theory, we can observe why this not a problem:

1. ANY piece of conducting material will work as an antenna on any frequency.

Even a straightened paper clip will work on 160 Meters. All we have to do is properly match the the transmitter to the the paper clip, and the paper clip will radiate ALL of the power fed to it! The aperture of this antenna will have a radius of 5/32 wavelength (.079 sq. wavelengths cross section area); essentially this is close to the theoretical “Isotropic” source. If this antenna is located in “free space”, the radiation will be almost equal in all directions.

http://k9erg.tripod.com/theory.htm

 Thus, these figures are generalizations, but are not far from the actual values.

0.0000000000022 Watts / (4PI x (500000m^2))

0.0000000000022 Watts / 3141592653589.7932384626433832795

= 7.0028174960433947738308855883906e-24 W

 

= -201.54727191871927618387329422323 dBm

= -231.54727191871927618387329422323 dBW

So there we have it.  To detect a single neuron firing at 500Km, we require a sensitivity of at least -231.55 dBW at our receiver.  But the story does not end here.

 Within the brain, entire clusters resonate at specific frequencies.  That is, there could be hundreds or thousands of axons all emitting, slightly out of phase, so these signals could be above the threshold that I have outlined above.  I feel that this method explains the detection of ELF RF energy detected coming from humans.  That is, its a product of photons received versus time.

 Transmission

 Buried in the comments section of one of my previous articles was a series of three very important scientific articles.  The articles are as follows:

 

  • Chaos control and synchronization of two neurons exposed to ELF external electric field (view here).
  • Unidirectional synchronization of Hodgkin–Huxley neurons exposed to ELF electric field (view here).
  • Fire patterns of modified HH neuron under external sinusoidal ELF stimulus (view here).

 

These scientific articles demonstrate the basic mechanism of controlling the firing pattern of a neuron remotely.  That is, they show how to interface with the brain remotely and induce a controlled hallucination.

 This is the basic mechanism by which the Artificial Intelligence can send information directly to the human brain.  Using the E-field of an ELF radio wave, neurons can be stimulated into firing under the direct control of the external field.  By stimulating patterns consistant with correct neural coding schemes, voice, pictures, video and sensations can be communicated to a target.

 At this point, I see no reason why any function the brain is capable of performing cannot be controlled by this external field.  The only real difficulty is identifying the correct neural coding schemes for specific actions or responses.  This includes complex thought processes and decision making.  Knowing exactly how far the NSA has progressed in this matter is impossible to gauge at this point.

 So, Can A Satellite Read Your Thoughts?

 If it were just a case of sheer distance, then yes, it would not be a problem.  Many have suggested that a parabolic dish of enormous size would be required, but this is not the case.  To some degree the atmosphere itself will act as a dish, but the photon wavelengths are so huge that focusing them on to a detector is not really required if using a closely spaced array.  Further, there is the issue of ionospheric reflection, but this is imperfect and does not have great impact on the E-field.

 I will not rule out a ground-based system, or some form of hybrid.  No doubt during early testing such ground-based systems were employed. 

 All said, a satellite system is a question of engineering, not of physics and it can do a lot more than just read your thoughts.

Nano Brain Implant ! Satellite Read Your Thoughts

Can A Satellite Read Your Thoughts of a nano Brain Implant – Physics Revealed 

Mon Sep 20, 2010 12:25 PM EDT

In a single hop scenario, information is captured by satellite and relayed directly to a ground station. Thus, four transmissions are required for a round trip.

In a centralized relay scenario, information is captured by satellite and forwarded to a second satellite in range of a ground station. Six transmissions are required at minimum .

Basic FFT analysis.

Trilateration is employed to accurately define the location of a signal source. Employed by GPS, the reverse process can be used to isolate the location of signals emanating from the surface of the Earth.

Collated diagram representing electrical activity emanating from a single individual.

A side-on view for demonstration purposes. Each peak represents the amplitude of a specific frequency which is indicative of current activity.

The last article in this series caused quite a stir around the Internet. From the legitimate crazies to the classic muddy-the-water tactics employed by various defense departments, the article has drawn attention right across the globe. For those that have been living under a rock, the last article in this series demonstrated that action potentials (firing neurons) produce detectable radio signals in the SLF/ELF bands (1-1000Hz).

These radio signals can be used to reveal the thoughts, feelings, vision, spacial reasoning and unconscious activity of the brain. It is simply a matter of correlating the patt to a nano brain implant received with those produced by the various neural networks to decode the activity. I am deliberately avoiding the term demodulate as no information is modulated onto the radio waves.

One question that keeps popping up is the mechanics of the capture and analysis of these radio signals. How do we go from an SLF/ELF radio wave, with limited bandwidth, to usable information or input that an A.I. can process?

Let’s find out.

Obeying The Speed Limit

The first major issue we encounter is at what altitude can we place our orbiting satellites? This is a relatively easy thing to approximate. The speed of light, in a vacuum, is constant. It travels at 299,792,458 m/s or nearly 300,000 Km/s and somewhat slower depending on the medium it transverses. Whilst at a glance it would seem that you can place the satellites anywhere you like, there is a practical limit given the need for two-way communication with the human brain.

Whilst it may seem to us that we experience the world as it is happening there is, in fact, a small delay. This can be anywhere from 100-200ms. To be of any use, an A.I. needs to be able to analyze information almost as fast as a human can perceive it. That is, for the A.I. to appear to be “in your head”, like a form of Schizophrenia, it must leverage the window provided by the 100-200ms delay. Thus, a round trip, including processing, must be under 200ms for the illusion to be maintained, a maximum of 100ms in either direction. As such, defined limits are imposed upon any solution.

If we examine our first diagram, we can observe a direct relay solution. That is, information captured by the satellite is relayed to a ground station directly. In this scenario, we have four transmissions to complete a round trip to the target. Thus, without considering processing, we know that each transmission can be at maximum 50ms. This gives us a maximum altitude of 14,989.62Km for our satellites which is well below GPS satellites at 20,200Km.

If we now take into consideration processing time, hops between dedicated hardware, lag and atmospheric issues, we could safely approximate 50-80ms. This now reduces our maximum altitude to around 10,000Km.

We cannot always guarantee that our satellite will be in direct line of sight contact with a ground station. In this scenario, we need to relay our information to a satellite that is within transmitting range. This scenario is demonstrated in the second diagram to the right. As a result, our altitude could drop to around 6,000Km or less.

Our constellation is not hindered by line-of-sight requirements of Microwaves as SLF/ELF waves can pass through relatively deep rock and water without a corresponding drop off in signal strength. Thus, a significant drop in altitude would not effect the coverage to any great extent and 30-60 satellites could provide global coverage.

Such a system need only generate around 0.00000002079 Watts, at ground level on the right frequency, to trigger the firing of a neuron. Thus, the SLF/ELF transmitters do not need to be of classical large sizes allowing for dense, power efficient, transmitter arrays in a form factor suitable for satellite deployment. Just keep in mind that an antenna’s function is to increase the amplitude of a wave through electrical resonance. With such small amplitudes, the classical submarine transmitters of 50Km or more are not required. In this form factor, a very rough estimate of a few thousand small antennas, per satellite, is feasible.

So, we have a good approximation of the infrastructure required and the limits that physics imposes. What we need to analyze now is the processing of that information.

Input, Input, Input

If we examine the third diagram, we can obtain a basic idea of the “snapshot” each satellite captures. In a given time frame, a range of frequencies is detected. To isolate a particular person, we use a form of trilateration similar to how GPS functions (see forth diagram). In this case, the Digital Signal Processing equipment on the ground replaces the function of the GPS receiver. Given the nature of SLF/ELF waves, atomic timing and detailed information on satellite drift and atmospheric conditions, millimeter or greater resolution can be achieved. The margin of error in GPS is related to both the lack of a wide range of information and processing power at the GPS receiver.

Once we have determined our desired location, we can collate the frequencies emanating from that particular location and disregard the rest of the information. This provides us with a reduced FFT diagram which represents the electrical activity of a particular individual. We can observe this collated diagram in the fifth image to the right.

From here, it is matter of correlating peaks and patterns against known neural activity. This acts as our translator or lexicon to decode the electrical activity into meaningful information. This is shown in the sixth diagram to the right. Performed in near real-time, every activity, thought, feeling, sight or sound can be captured and recorded.

So, we have shown how signal analysis can be used to infer the activity, both physical and mental, of a targeted individual. It also shows that there is not a giant leap in returning such signals to the brain and effectively hijacking it. Once the frequencies the target’s brain emanates have been isolated, an entire stage of processing (trilateration) can be skipped, unless real-time tracking is required.

Of course, certain architecture choices can provide additional features applicable to intelligence gathering. The first is the storage and analysis of historical information. This allows the A.I. to refer to elements in your past, even though it was not specifically examining you at the time. This can be used to increase the Schizophrenic illusion by inferring that the voice, or personality, was always there. Further to this, an individual not aware of the presence of this system, could have their opinions and feelings manipulated. This is especially useful when a certain political outcome is desired, such as peace negotiations or trade decisions.

A second design choice and arguably the most useful, is a modification on keyword analysis. “Key Thought Analysis” reviews all data in a particular grid search (for example a province in Afghanistan) to reveal individuals thinking of specific activity. Once located, the spacial resolution can be widened to reveal individuals in their presence and whether this was a group planning an attack.

Finally, we could have two or more layers of satellites, one used for real-time interaction with an A.I. and a second set simply gathering information. The latter could be at any altitude.