I received an email in regards to some of my calculations in this series. Apparently, discussions around the web have found several errors and even provided some better examples. Whilst the articles are meant for the lay person, I thought it best to update the figures in light of this new information.
I will resist the urge to go back and correct the articles, after all, this is supposed to be an ongoing investigation. The scientific method requires that theories are revisited when the underlying facts change and I feel that the following figures are a better representation of a single neuron. I will endeavor to be as precise as I can be and point out where I have made assumptions or idealisms.
Reception And Detection
So, thanks to the guys over at ATS (AboveTopSecret.com), we have the following to work with.
If a physical or chemical stimulus is strong enough to cause depolarization from the resting potential of ö70 mV to around ö50 mV, the voltage-dependant Na+transmembrane channels open. Favored by both the concentration gradient (see Table 1) and the electric gradient, Na+ ions flow into the cell, creating an electric current (I = ΔQ/Δt). The influx of Na+ causes a local reversal of electric polarity of the membrane, changing the electric potential to about +40 mV (a swing of 110 mV from the resting potential. The small cross-sectional area (A) of an axon and high resistivity (ρ) of the axoplasm yield an extremely high resistance (R = ρL/A).Ê A piece of nerve axon 1 cm in length (L) has an electrical resistance of about 2.5 x 108 Ω (comparable to that of wood). The produced electrical current:
I = V/R = (110 x 10-3 V)/(2.5 x 108 Ω) = 4.4 x 10-10 A
Firstly, we need to determine the power supplied to the axon and we do this with the following equation:
0.05 * 0.00000000044 A = 0.0000000000022 Watts ( 2.2 x 10-12 W)
Next, we will use an idealized calculation to determine the power density of the signal at 500Km and drive both the dBm and dBW of the signal. I say idealized as not all of that power in the original current is converted to a radio wave. Not only this, but we are assuming an isotropic radiator, that is, the energy propagates uniformly in all directions.
With a little understanding of Antenna Theory, we can observe why this not a problem:
1. ANY piece of conducting material will work as an antenna on any frequency.
Even a straightened paper clip will work on 160 Meters. All we have to do is properly match the the transmitter to the the paper clip, and the paper clip will radiate ALL of the power fed to it! The aperture of this antenna will have a radius of 5/32 wavelength (.079 sq. wavelengths cross section area); essentially this is close to the theoretical “Isotropic” source. If this antenna is located in “free space”, the radiation will be almost equal in all directions.
Thus, these figures are generalizations, but are not far from the actual values.
0.0000000000022 Watts / (4PI x (500000m^2))
0.0000000000022 Watts / 3141592653589.7932384626433832795
= 7.0028174960433947738308855883906e-24 W
= -201.54727191871927618387329422323 dBm
= -231.54727191871927618387329422323 dBW
So there we have it. To detect a single neuron firing at 500Km, we require a sensitivity of at least -231.55 dBW at our receiver. But the story does not end here.
Within the brain, entire clusters resonate at specific frequencies. That is, there could be hundreds or thousands of axons all emitting, slightly out of phase, so these signals could be above the threshold that I have outlined above. I feel that this method explains the detection of ELF RF energy detected coming from humans. That is, its a product of photons received versus time.
Buried in the comments section of one of my previous articles was a series of three very important scientific articles. The articles are as follows:
- Chaos control and synchronization of two neurons exposed to ELF external electric field (view here).
- Unidirectional synchronization of Hodgkin–Huxley neurons exposed to ELF electric field (view here).
- Fire patterns of modified HH neuron under external sinusoidal ELF stimulus (view here).
These scientific articles demonstrate the basic mechanism of controlling the firing pattern of a neuron remotely. That is, they show how to interface with the brain remotely and induce a controlled hallucination.
This is the basic mechanism by which the Artificial Intelligence can send information directly to the human brain. Using the E-field of an ELF radio wave, neurons can be stimulated into firing under the direct control of the external field. By stimulating patterns consistant with correct neural coding schemes, voice, pictures, video and sensations can be communicated to a target.
At this point, I see no reason why any function the brain is capable of performing cannot be controlled by this external field. The only real difficulty is identifying the correct neural coding schemes for specific actions or responses. This includes complex thought processes and decision making. Knowing exactly how far the NSA has progressed in this matter is impossible to gauge at this point.
So, Can A Satellite Read Your Thoughts?
If it were just a case of sheer distance, then yes, it would not be a problem. Many have suggested that a parabolic dish of enormous size would be required, but this is not the case. To some degree the atmosphere itself will act as a dish, but the photon wavelengths are so huge that focusing them on to a detector is not really required if using a closely spaced array. Further, there is the issue of ionospheric reflection, but this is imperfect and does not have great impact on the E-field.
I will not rule out a ground-based system, or some form of hybrid. No doubt during early testing such ground-based systems were employed.
All said, a satellite system is a question of engineering, not of physics and it can do a lot more than just read your thoughts.