The article said: ‘On one hand, it can judge how party members have accepted thought and political education.
‘On the other hand, it will provide real data for thought and political education so it can be improved and enriched.’
The AI tech will solidify ‘confidence and determination’ of Communist Party members ‘to be grateful to the party, listen to the party and follow the party’.
Hefei Comprehensive National Science Centre has reportedly encouraged 43 Communist Party members, who are also on the research team, to test the tech.
A video published with the article, which has also been deleted, showed a researcher entering a kiosk, sitting in front of a screen and looking at articles promoting party policy and achievements.
‘The kiosk can see the researcher’s expressions, possibly via surveillance cameras,’ Tang says.
It’s unclear if the brainwave-reading technology is situated in the kiosk, or how the whole system would be rolled out to monitor the millions of Communist Party members in the country.
But it appears that reading people’s brain waves is not new to China – back in 2018, the South China Morning Post reported that brain-scanning technology was being used on factory workers in Hangzhou.
This involved using brain-reading helmets to read a worker’s emotions, and artificial intelligence algorithms to detect emotional spikes such as depression, anxiety or rage.
Pictured is China’s President Xi Jinping following his speech after a ceremony to inaugurate Hong Kong’s new leader and government on July 1, 2022
China’s ruling Communist Party, led by President Xi Jinping, allegedly believes ‘thought and political education’ are essential to party loyalty.
The party already has an ‘indoctrination app’ for its members called ‘Xuexi Qiangguo’ or ‘Study to make China strong’.
The app forces its 96.77 million members to earn points by reading articles, watching videos and answering quizzes on Communist heroes.
It tracks the amount of time users spend browsing inspirational quotes from President Jinping and watching short videos of his speeches and travels.
Members are able to redeem their scores for gifts such as pastries and tablets, AFP previously reported.
Meanwhile, China’s government has come under increasing scrutiny for high-tech surveillance, from facial recognition-enabled security cameras to apps used by police to extract personal information from smartphones at checkpoints.
The ‘Study Xi’ app tracks the amount of time users spend browsing inspirational quotes and following his speeches and travels
China is famous for tracking its citizens using the latest technology – notably a Black Mirror-like social rating system to restore morality’ and blacklist ‘untrustworthy’ citizens.
Last year, it was revealed China has also developed an AI prosecutor that can charge people with crimes with more than 97 per cent accuracy.
This system, which was ‘trained’ using 17,000 real life cases from 2015 to 2020, is able to identify and press charges for the eight most common crimes in Shanghai.
These are ‘provoking trouble’ – a term used to stifle dissent in China – credit card fraud, gambling crimes, dangerous driving, theft, fraud, intentional injury and obstructing official duties.
BEING BLACKLISTED BY CHINA’S SOCIAL CREDIT SYSTEM ‘WORSE THAN JAIL’
A man who has been penalised by China‘s social credit system said it’s worse than going to jail.
The man, identified as David Kong, told South China Morning Post in 2019 that he was banned from taking the high-speed train because he was officially declared a ‘deadbeat’ by authorities.
This group of 3.6 million ‘discredited individuals’, who earned poor ratings mostly for refusing to pay their debts, are disqualified from spending on ‘luxuries’ including renting a flat, travelling on a plane or on a fast train in China.
‘It’s even worse than doing time because at least there’s a limit to a prison sentence,’ Kong told South China Morning Post.
‘Being on the list means that as long as you can’t clear your debts in full, your name will always be there.’
Kong was declared a ‘discredited individual’ in 2015 after his book publishing business failed. He said he had borrowed 1.6 million yuan (£180,000) and could not pay it back.
The social credit system rates citizens based on their daily behaviour, and this could range from their bank credit to their social media activities.
With a tagline of ‘once discredited, everywhere restricted’, it vows to punish ‘untrustworthy’ citizens in as many ways as possible.
Train passengers could face travel bans if they endanger railway safety, smoke on high-speed trains, sell on tickets, produce fake tickets, dodge tickets and occupy unassigned seats, according to People’s Daily.
Air passengers could be banned from future flights for behaviours including spreading rumours about terror attacks, breaking into runways, assaulting the crew and causing disruption on flights.
Executive Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………4 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….5 The advent of Cognitive Warfare ……………………………………………………………….6 From Information Warfare to Cognitive Warfare …………………………………………….6 Hacking the individual ………………………………………………………………………………………….7 Trust is the target …………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 Cognitive Warfare, a participatory propaganda ………………………………………………8 Behavioural economy ……………………………………………………………………………………………9 Cyber psychology …………………………………………………………………………………………………11 The centrality of the human brain ……………………………………………………………..12 Understanding the brain is a key challenge for the future …………………………..12 The vulnerabilities of the human brain ……………………………………………………………..13 The role of emotions …………………………………………………………………………………………….15 The battle for attention ………………………………………………………………………………………..15 Long-term impacts of technology on the brain ………………………………………………16 The promises of neurosciences…………………………………………………………………………. 17 The militarisation of brain science …………………………………………………………….19 Progress and Viability of Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T) …………19 Military and Intelligence Use of NeuroS/T ……………………………………………………….20 Direct Weaponisation of NeuroS/T ……………………………………………………………………21 Neurodata ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22 The neurobioeconomy …………………………………………………………………………………………23 Towards a new operational domain …………………………………………………………..25 Russian and Chinese Cognitive Warfare Definition……………………………………….. 26 It’s about Humans …………………………………………………………………………………………………28 Recommendations for NATO ………………………………………………………………………………32 Definition of the Human Domain ………………………………………………………………………32 Impact on Warfare Development ……………………………………………………………………….34 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36 Bibliography and Sources …………………………………………………………………………..37 Annex 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………38 Nation State Case Study 1: The weaponisation of neurosciences in China …38 Annex 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………41 Nation State Case Study 2: The Russian National Technology Initiative ………41
As written in the Warfighting 2040 Paper, the nature of warfare has changed. The majority of current conflicts remain below the threshold of the traditionally accepted definition of warfare, but new forms of warfare have emerged such as Cognitive Warfare (CW), while the human mind is now being considered as a new domain of war. With the increasing role of technology and information overload, individual cognitive abilities will no longer be sufficient to ensure an informed and timely decision-making, leading to the new concept of Cognitive Warfare, which has become a recurring term in military termi- nology in recent years. Cognitive Warfare causes an insidious challenge. It disrupts the ordinary understandings and reactions to events in a gradual and subtle way, but with significant harmful effects over time. Cognitive warfare has universal reach, from the individual to states and multinational organi-sations. It feeds on the techniques of disinformation and propaganda aimed at psychologically exhausting the receptors of information. Everyone contributes to it, to varying degrees, consciously or sub consciously and it provides invaluable knowledge on society, especially open societies, such as those in the West. This knowledge can then be easily weaponised. It offers NATO’s adversaries a means of bypassing the traditional battlefield with significant strategic results, which may be utilised to radically transform Western societies. The instruments of information warfare, along with the addition of “neuro-weapons” adds to future technological perspectives, suggesting that the cognitive field will be one of tomorrow’s battlefields. This perspective is further strengthened in by the rapid advances of NBICs (Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Sciences) and the understanding of the brain. NATO’s adversaries are already investing heavily in these new technologies. NATO needs to anticipate advances in these technologies by raising the awareness on the true potential of CW. Whatever the nature and object of warfare, it always comes down to a clash of human wills, and therefore what defines victory will be the ability to impose a desired behaviour on a chosen audience. Actions undertaken in the five domains – air, land, sea, space and cyber – are all executed in order to have an effect on the human domain. It is therefore time for NATO to recognise the renewed importance of the sixth operational domain, namely the Human Domain. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 4 of 45 Introduction Individual and organisational cognitive capabilities will be of paramount importance because of the speed and volume of information available in the modern battlespace. If modern technology holds the promise of improving human cognitive performance, it also holds the seeds of serious threats for military organisations. Because organisations are made up of human beings, human limitations and preferences ultimately affect organisational behaviour and decision-making processes. Military organisations are subject to the problem of limited rationality, but this constraint is often overlooked in practice .
1 In an environment permeated with technology and overloaded with information, managing the cognitive abilities within military organisations will be key, while developing capabilities to harm the cognitive abilities of opponents will be a necessity. In other words, NATO will need to get the ability to safeguard her decision-making process and disrupt the adversary’s one. This study intends to respond to the three following questions: • Improve awareness on Cognitive Warfare, including a better understanding of the risks and opportunities of new Cognitive / Human Mind technologies; • Provide ‘out-of-the-box’ insight on Cognitive Warfare; • And to provide strategic level arguments to SACT as to recommend, or not, Cognitive / Human Mind as an Operational Domain. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 5 of 45 The advent of Cognitive Warfare From Information Warfare to Cognitive Warfare Information warfare (IW) is the most related, and, thus, the most easily conflated, type of warfare with regards to cognitive warfare. However, there are key distinctions that make cognitive warfare unique enough to be addressed under its own jurisdiction. As a concept, IW was first coined and developed under US Military doctrine, and has subsequently been adopted in different forms by several nations. As former US Navy Commander Stuart Green described it as, “Information operations, the closest
2 existing American doctrinal concept for cognitive warfare, consists of five ‘core capabilities’, or elements. These include electronic warfare, computer network operations, PsyOps, military deception, and operational security.” Succinctly, Information Warfare aims at controlling the flow of information. Information warfare has been designed primarily to support objectives defined by the traditional mission of military organisations – namely, to produce lethal kinetic effects on the battlefield. It was not designed to achieve lasting political successes. As defined by Clint Watts, cognitive Warfare opposes the capacities to know and to produce, it actively thwarts knowledge. Cognitive sciences cover all the sciences that concern knowledge and its processes (psychology, linguistics, neurobiology, logic and more).
3 Cognitive Warfare degrades the capacity to know, produce or thwart knowledge. Cognitive sciences cover all the sciences that concern knowledge and its processes (psychology, linguistics, neurobiology, logic and more). Cognitive Warfare is therefore the way of using knowledge for a conflicting purpose. In its broadest sense, cognitive warfare is not limited to the military or institutional world. Since the early 1990s, this capability has tended to be applied to the political, economic, cultural and societal fields. Any user of modern information technologies is a potential target. It targets the whole of a nation’s human capital. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 6 of 45 “Conflicts will increasingly depend on/and revolve around, information and communications— (…) Indeed, both cyberwar and netwar are modes of conflict that are largely about “knowledge”—about who knows what, when, where, and why, and about how secure a society” John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt The Advent of Netwar, RAND, 1996
“Big Data allows us to develop fabulous calculation and analysis performances, but what makes it possible to respond to a situation is reason and reason is what enables to take a decision in what is not calculable, otherwise we only confirm the state of affairs.” Bernard Stiegler The most striking shift of this practice from the military, to the civilian, world is the perva siveness of CW activities across everyday life that sit outside the normal peace-crisis-conflict construct (with harmful effects). Even if a cognitive war could be conducted to complement to a military conflict, it can also be conducted alone, without any link to an engagement of the armed forces. Moreover, cognitive warfare is potentially endless since there can be no peace treaty or surrender for this type of conflict. Evidence now exists that shows new CW tools & techniques target military personnel directly , not only with classical information weapons but also with a constantly growing and rapidly evolving arsenal of neuro-weapons, targeting the brain. It is important to recognise various nations’ dedicated endeavours to develop non-kinetic operations, that target the Human with effects at every level – from the individual level, up to the socio-political level. Hacking the individual The revolution in information technology has enabled cognitive manipulations of a new kind, on an unprecedented and highly elaborate scale. All this happens at much lower cost than in the past, when it was necessary to create effects and impact through non-virtual actions in the physical realm. Thus, in a continuous process, classical military capabilities do not counter cognitive warfare. Despite the military having difficulty in recognising the reality and effectiveness of the phenomena associated with cognitive warfare, the relevance of kinetic and resource-intensive means of warfare is nonetheless diminishing. Social engineering always starts with a deep dive into the human environment of the target. The goal is to understand the psychology of the targeted people. This phase is more important than any other as it allows not only the precise targeting of the right people but also to anticipate reactions, and to develop empathy. Understanding the human environment is the key to building the trust that will ultimately lead to the desired results. Humans are an easy target since theyall contribute by providing information on themselves, making the adversaries’ sockpuppets more powerful.
4 In any case NATO’s adversaries focus on identifying the Alliance’s centres of gravity and vulnerabilities. They have long identified that the main vulnerability is the human. It is easy to find these centres of gravity in open societies because they are reflected in the study of human and social sciences such as political science, history, geography, biology, philosophy, voting systems, public administration, international politics, international relations, religious studies, education, sociology, arts and culture… Cognitive Warfare is a war of ideologies that strives to erode the trust that underpins every society. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 7 of 45 “Social engineering is the art and science of getting people to comply to your wishes. It is not a way of mind control, it will not allow you to get people to perform tasks wildly outside of their normal behaviour and it isfar from foolproof” Harl, People Hacking, 1997 Trust is the target Cognitive warfare pursues the objective of undermining trust (public trust in electoral processes, trust in institutions, allies, politicians…). , therefore the individual becomes the
5 weapon, while the goal is not to attack what individuals think but rather the way they think .
6 It has the potential to unravel the entire social contract that underpins societies. It is natural to trust the senses, to believe what is seen and read. But the democratisation of automated tools and techniques using AI, no longer requiring a technological background, enables anyone to distort information and to further undermine trust in open societies. The use of fake news, deep fakes, Trojan horses, and digital avatars will create new suspicions which anyone can exploit. It is easier and cheaper for adversaries to undermine trust in our own systems than to attack our power grids, factories or military compounds. Hence, it is likely that in the near future there will be more attacks, from a growing and much more diverse number of potential players with a greater risk for escalation or miscalculation. The characteristics of cyberspace (lack of regulation, difficulties and associated risks of attribution of attacks in particular) mean that new actors, either state or non-state, are to be expected .
7 As the example of COVID-19 shows, the massive amount of texts on the subject, including deliberately biased texts (example is the Lancet study on chloroquine) created an information and knowledge overload which, in turn, generates both a loss of credibility and a need for closure. Therefore the ability for humans to question, normally, any data/information presented is hampered, with a tendency to fall back on biases to the detriment of unfettered decision making. It applies to trust among individuals as well as groups, political alliances and societies. “Trust, in particular among allies, is a targeted vulnerability. As any international institution does, NATO relies on trust between its partners. Trust is based not only on respecting some explicit and tangible agreements, but also on ‘invisible contracts,’ on sharing values, which is not easy when such a proportion of allied nations have been fighting each other for centuries. This has left wounds and scars creating a cognitive/information landscape that our adversaries study with great care. Their objective is to identify the ‘Cognitive Centers of Gravity’ of the Alliance, which they will target with ‘info-weapons’.”
8 Cognitive Warfare, a participatory propaganda
9 In many ways, cognitive warfare can be compared to propaganda, which can be defined as “a set of methods employed by an organised group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically unified through psychological manipulations and incorporated in an organisation.”
10 Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 8 of 45 The purpose of propaganda is not to “program” minds, but to influence attitudes and behaviours by getting people to adopt the right attitude, which may consist of doing certain things or, often, stopping doing them. Cognitive Warfare is methodically exploited as a component of a global strategy by adversaries aimed at weakening, interfering and destabilising targeted populations, institutions and states, in order to influence their choices, to undermine the autonomy of their decisions and the sovereignty of their institutions. Such campaigns combine both real and distorted information (misinformation), exaggerated facts and fabricated news (disinformation). Disinformation preys on the cognitive vulnerabilities of its targets by taking advantage of pre-existing anxieties or beliefs that predispose them to accept false information. This requires the aggressor to have an acute understanding of the socio-political dynamics at play and to know exactly when and how to penetrate to best exploit these vulnerabilities. Cognitive Warfare exploits the innate vulnerabilities of the human mind because of the way it is designed to process information, which have always been exploited in warfare, of course. However, due to the speed and pervasiveness of technology and information, the human mind is no longer able to process the flow of information. Where CW differs from propaganda is in the fact that everyone participates, mostly inadvertently, to information processing and knowledge formation in an unprecedented way. This is a subtle but significant change. While individuals were passively submitted to propaganda, they now actively contribute to it. The exploitation of human cognition has become a massive industry. And it is expected that emerging artificial intelligence (AI) tools will soon provide propagandists radically enhanced capabilities to manipulate human minds and change human behaviour .
11 Behavioural economy “Capitalism is undergoing a radical mutation. What many describe as the ‘data economy’ is in fact better understood as a ‘behavioural economics’”. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 9 of 45 “New tools and techniques, combined with the changing technological and information foundations of modern societies, are creating an unprecedented capacity to conduct virtual societal warfare.” Michael J. Mazarr “Modern propaganda is based on scientific analyses of psychology and sociology. Step by step, the propagandist builds his techniques on the basis of his knowledge of man, his tendencies, his desires, his needs, his psychic mechanisms, his conditioning — and as much on social psychology as on depth psychology.” Jacques Ellul, Propaganda, 1962 Behavioural economics (BE) is defined as a method of economic analysis that applies psychological insights into human behaviour to explain economic decision-making. As research into decision-making shows, behaviour becomes increasingly computational, BE is at the crossroad between hard science and soft science .
12 Operationally, this means massive and methodical use of behavioural data and the development of methods to aggressively seek out new data sources. With the vast amount of (behavioural) data that everyone generates mostly without our consent and awareness, further manipulation is easily achievable. The large digital economy companies have developed new data capture methods, allowing the inference of personal information that users may not necessarily intend to disclose. The excess data has become the basis for new prediction markets called targeted advertising. “Here is the origin of surveillance capitalism in an unprecedented and lucrative brew: behavioural surplus, data science, material infrastructure, computational power, algorithmic systems, and automated platforms”, claims Soshanna Zuboff .
13 In democratic societies, advertising has quickly become as important as research. It has finally become the cornerstone of a new type of business that depends on large-scale online monitoring. The target is the human being in the broadest sense and it is easy to divert the data obtained from just commercial purposes, as the Cambridge Analytica (CA) scandal demonstrated. Thus, the lack of regulation of the digital space – the so-called “data swamp”- does not only benefit the digital-age regimes, which “can exert remarkable control over not just computer networks and human bodies, but the minds of their citizens as well” .
14 It can also be utilised for malign purposes as the example of the CA scandal has shown. CA digital model outlined how to combine personal data with machine learning for political ends by profiling individual voters in order to target them with personalised political advertisements. Using the most advanced survey and psychometrics techniques, Cambridge Analytica was actually able to collect a vast amount of individuals’ data that helped them understand through economics, demographics, social and behavioural information what each of them thought. It literally provided the company a window into the minds of people. The gigantic collection of data organised via digital technologies is today primarily used to define and anticipate human behaviour. Behavioural knowledge is a strategic asset. “Behavioural economics adapts psychology research to economic models, thus creating more accurate representations of human interactions.”
15 “Cambridge Analytica has demonstrated how it’s possible […] to leverage tools to build a scaled-down version of the massive surveillance and manipulation machines”
16 Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 10 of 45 “Technology is going on unabatedand will continue to go on unabated. […] Because technology is going so fast and because people don’t understand it, there was always going to be a Cambridge Analytica.” Julian Wheatland Ex-Chief Operating Officer of Cambridge Analytica As shown by the example of Cambridge Analytica, one can weaponise such knowledge and develop appropriate offensive and defensive capabilities, paving the way for virtual societal warfare. A systematic use of BE methods applied to the military could lead to better under
17 – standing of how individuals and groups behave and think, eventually leading to a wider understanding of the decision-making environment of adversaries. There is a real risk that access to behavioural data utilising the tools and techniques of BE, as shown by the example of Cambridge Analytica, could allow any malicious actor- whether state or non-state- to strategically harm open societies and their instruments of power. Cyberpsychology Assuming that technology affects everyone, studying and understanding human behaviour in relation to technology is vital as the line between cyberspace and the real world is becoming blurry. The exponentially increasing impact of cybernetics, digital technologies, and virtuality can only be gauged when considered through their effects on societies, humans, and their respective behaviours. Cyberpsychology is at the crossroads of two main fields: psychology and cybernetics. All this is relevant to defense and security, and to all areas that matter to NATO as it prepares for transformation. Centered on the clarification of the mechanisms of thought and on the conceptions, uses and limits of cybernetic systems, cyberpsychology is a key issue in the vast field of Cognitive Sciences. The evolution of AI introduces new words, new concepts, but also new theories that encompass a study of the natural functioning of humans and of the machines they have built and which, today, are fully integrated in their natural environment (anthropo-technical). Tomorrow’s human beings will have to invent a psychology of their relation to machines. But the challenge is to develop also a psychology of machines, artificial intelligent software or hybrid robots. Cyber psychology is a complex scientific field that encompasses all psychological phenomena associated with, or affected by relevant evolving technologies. Cyber psychology examines the way humans and machines impact each other, and explores how the relationship between humans and AI will change human interactions and inter-machine communication .
Paradoxically, the development of information technology and its use for manipulative purposes in particular highlights the increasingly predominant role of the brain. The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This organ is the seat of intelligence, the interpreter of the senses, the initiator of body movements, the controller of behaviour and the centre of decisions. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 11 of 45 The centrality of the human brain . For centuries, scientists and philosophers have been fascinated by the brain, but until recently they considered the brain to be almost incomprehensible. Today, however, the brain is beginning to reveal its secrets. Scientists have learned more about the brain in the past decade than in any previous century, thanks to the accelerating pace of research in the neurological and behavioural sciences and the development of new research techniques. For the military, it represents the last frontier in science, in that it could bring a decisive advantage in tomorrow’s wars. Understanding the brain is a key challenge for the future Substantial advances have been made in recent decades in understanding how the brain functions. While our decisionmaking processes remain centered on Human in particular with its capacity to orient (OODA loop), fed by data, analysis and visualisations, the inability of human to process, fuse and analyse the profusion of data in a timely manner calls for humans to team with AI machines to compete with AI machines. In order to keep a balance between the human and the machine in the decision-making process, it becomes necessary to be aware of human limitations and vulnerabilities. It all starts with understanding our cognition processes and the way our brain’s function. Over the past two decades, cognitive science and neuroscience have taken a new step in the analysis and understanding of the human brain, and have opened up new perspectives in terms of brain research, if not indeed of a hybridisation, then of human and artificial intelligence. They have mainly made a major contribution to the study of the diversity of neuro-psychic mechanisms facilitating learning and, as a result, have, for example, challenged the intuition of “multiple intelligences”. No one today can any longer ignore the fact that the brain is both the seat of emotions the interactive mechanisms of memorisation, information processing, problem solving and decision-making. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 12 of 45 Cognitive Science Discipline associating psychology, sociology, linguistics, artificial intelligence and neurosciences, and having for object the explicitation of the mechanisms of thought and information processing mobilised for the acquisition, conservation, use and transmission of knowledge. Neuroscience Trans-disciplinary scientific discipline associating biology, mathematics, computer science, etc., with the aim of studying the organisation and functioning of the nervous system, from the point of view of both its structure and its functioning, from the molecular scale down to the level of the organs. The vulnerabilities of the human brain “In the cognitive war, it’s more important than ever to know thyself.”
19 Humans have developed adaptations to cope with cognitive limitations allowing more effcient processing of information. Unfortunately, these same shortcuts introduce distortions in our thinking and communication, making communication efforts ineffective and subject to manipulation by adversaries seeking to mislead or confuse. These cognitive biases can lead to inaccurate judgments and poor decision making that could trigger an unintended escalation or prevent the timely identification of threats. Understanding the sources and types of cognitive biases can help reduce misunderstandings and inform the development of better strategies to respond to opponents’ attempts to use these biases to their advantage.
In particular, the brain:
is unable to distinct whether particular information is right or wrong;
Is led to take shortcuts in determining the trustworthiness of messages in case of information overload;
is led to believe statements or messages that its already heard as true, even though these may be false;
accepts statements as true, if backed by evidence, with no regards to the authenticity of the that evidence. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 13 of 45 Those are, among many others, the cognitive bias, defined as a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
20 There are many different cognitive biases inherently stemming from the human brain. Most
21 of them are relevant to the information environment. Probably the most common and most damaging cognitive bias is the confirmation bias. This is the effect that leads people to look for evidence that confirms what they already think or suspect, to regard facts and ideas they encounter as further confirmation, and to dismiss or ignore any evidence that seems to support another point of view. In other words, “people see what they want to see” .
22 Cognitive biases effect everyone, from soldiers on the ground to staff officers, and to a greater extent than everyone admits. It is not only important to recognise it in ourselves, but to study the biases of adversaries to understand how they behave and interact. As stated by Robert P. Kozloski, “The importance of truly “knowing yourself” cannot be understated. Advances in computing technology, particularly machine learning, provide the military with the opportunity to know itself like never before. Collecting and analysing the data Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 14 of 45 generated in virtual environments will enable military organisations to understand the cognitive performance of individuals.”
23 Ultimately, operational advantages in cognitive warfare will first come from the improvement of understanding of military cognitive abilities and limitations. The role of emotions In the digital realm, what allows the digital industries and their customers (and notably advertisers) to distinguish individuals in the crowd, to refine personalisation and behavioural analysis, are emotions. Every social media platform, every website is designed to be addictive and to trigger some emotional bursts, trapping the brain in a cycle of posts. The speed, emotional intensity, and echo-chamber qualities of social media content cause those exposed to it to experience more extreme reactions. Social media is particularly well suited to worsening political and social polarisation because of their ability to disseminate violent images and scary rumours very quickly and intensely. “The more the anger spreads, the more Internet users are susceptible to becoming a troll.”
24 At the political and strategic level, it would be wrong to underestimate the impact of emotions. Dominique Moïsi showed in his book “The Geopolitics of Emotion” , how emotions –
25 hope, fear and humiliation – were shaping the world and international relations with the echo-chamber effect of the social media. For example, it seems important to integrate into theoretical studies on terrorist phenomena the role of emotions leading to a violent and/or a terrorist path. By limiting cognitive abilities, emotions also play a role in decision-making, performance, and overall well-being, and it’s impossible to stop people from experiencing them. “In the face of violence, the very first obstacle you will have to face will not be your abuser, but your own reactions.”
26 The battle for attention Never have knowledge and information been so accessible, so abundant, and so shareable. Gaining attention means not only building a privileged relationship with our interlocutors to better communicate and persuade, but it also means preventing competitors from getting that attention, be it political, economic, social or even in our personal life. This battlefield is global via the internet. With no beginning and no end, this conquest knows no respite, punctuated by notifications from our smartphones, anywhere, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Coined in 1996 by Professor B.J. Fogg from Stanford University, “captology” is defined as the science of using “computers as technologies of persuasion”.
27 Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 15 of 45 “We are competing with sleep” Reed Hastings CEO of Netflix The time has therefore come to adopt the rules of this “attention economy”, to master the technologies related to “captology”, to understand how these challenges are completely new. Indeed, this battle is not limited to screens and design, it also takes place in brains, especially in the way they are misled. It is also a question of understanding why, in the age of social networks, some “fake news”, conspiracy theories or “alternative facts”, seduce and convince, while at the same time rendering their victims inaudible. Attention on the contrary is a limited and increasingly scarce resource. It cannot be shared: it can be conquered and kept. The battle for attention is now at work, involving companies, states and citizens. The issues at stake now go far beyond the framework of pedagogy, ethics and screen addiction. The consumption environment, especially marketing, is leading the way. Marketers have long understood that the seat of attention and decision making is the brain and as such have long sought to understand, anticipate its choices and influence it. This approach naturally applies just as well to military affairs and adversaries have already understood this. Long-term impacts of technology on the brain As Dr. James Giordano claims, “the brain will the battlefield of the 21st century”.
28 And when it comes to shaping the brain, the technological environment plays a key role. The brain has only one chance to develop. Damage to the brain is very often irreversible. Understanding and protecting our brains from external aggression, of all kinds, will be one of the major challenges of the future. According to the neuroscientist Maryanne Wolf, humans were not meant to read and the invention of printing changed the shape of our brains . It took years, if not centuries, to assess
29 the consequences – social, political or sociological for example – of the invention of printing. It will likely take longer before understanding accurately the long-term consequences of the digital age but one thing everyone agrees on is that the human brain is changing today faster than ever before with the pervasiveness of digital technology. There is a growing amount of research that explores how technology affects the brain. Studies show that exposure to technology shapes the cognitive processes and the ability to take in information. One of the major findings is the advent of a society of ‘cognitive offloaders’, meaning that no one memorises important information any longer. Instead, the brain tends to remember the location where they retrieved when it is next required. With information and visual overload, the brain tends to scan information and pick out what appears to be important with no regard to the rest. One of the evolutions already noticed is the loss of critical thinking directly related to screen reading and the increasing inability to read a real book. The way information is processed affects brain development, leading to neglect of the sophisticated thought processes. Brains will thus be different tomorrow. It is therefore highly probable that our brains will be radically Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 16 of 45 transformed in an extremely short period, but it is also likely that this change will come at the expense of more sophisticated, more complex thinking processes necessary for critical analysis. In an era where memory is outsourced to Google, GPS, calendar alerts and calculators, it will necessarily produce a generalised loss of knowledge that is not just memory, but rather motor memory. In other words, a long-term process of disabling connections in your brain
is ongoing. It will present both vulnerabilities and opportunities. However, there is also plenty of research showing the benefits of technology on our cognitive functions. For example, a Princeton University study found that expert video gamers have a
31 higher ability to process data, to make decisions faster or even to achieve simultaneous multitasks in comparison to non-gamers. There is a general consensus among neuroscientists that a reasoned use of information technology (and particularly games) is beneficial to the brain. By further blurring the line between the real and the virtual, the development of technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) or Mixed Reality (MR) has the potential to transform the brain’s abilities even more radically . Behaviours in virtual environments
32 can continue to influence real behaviour long after exiting VR.
33 Yet, virtual environments offer the opportunity to efficiently complement live training since it can provide cognitive experience that a live exercise cannot replicate. While there are concerns and research on how digital media are harming developing minds, it is still difficult to predict how the technology will affect and change the brain, but with the ubiquity of IT, it will become increasingly crucial to carefully detect and anticipate the impacts of information technology on the brain and to adapt the use of information technology. In the long-term, there is little doubt that Information Technologies will transform the brain, thus providing more opportunities to learn and to apprehend the cyber environment but also vulnerabilities that will require closely monitoring in order to counter and defend against them and how to best exploit them. The promises of neurosciences “Social neuroscience holds the promise of understanding people’s thoughts, emotions and intentions through the mere observation of their biology.”
34 Should scientists be able to establish a close and precise correspondence between biological functions on the one hand and social cognitions and behaviours on the other hand, neuroscientific methods could have tremendous applications for many disciplines and for our society in general. It includes decision-making, exchanges, physical and mental health care, prevention, jurisprudence, and more. This highlights how far neurosciences occupies a growing place in medical and scientific research. More than just a discipline, they articulate a set of fields related to the knowledge of the brain and nervous system and question the complex relationships between man and his Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 17 of 45 environment and fellow human beings. From biomedical research to cognitive sciences, the actors, approaches and organisations that structure neuroscience are diverse. Often convergent, they can also be competitive. While the discoveries and challenges of the neurosciences are relatively well known, this field raises both hope and concern. In a disorganised and, at times, ill-informed way, “neuroscience” seems to be everywhere. Integrated, sometimes indiscriminately, in many debates, they are mobilised around the issues of society and public health, education, aging, and nourish the hopes of an augmented man.
Today, the manipulation of our perception, thoughts and behaviours is taking place on previously unimaginable scales of time, space and intentionality. That, precisely, is the source of one of the greatest vulnerabilities that every individual must learn to deal with. Many actors are likely to exploit these vulnerabilities, while the evolution of technology for producing and disseminating information is increasingly fast. At the same time, as the cost of technology steadily drops, more actors enter the scene. As the technology evolves, so do the vulnerabilities. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 18 of 45 The militarisation of brain science Scientists around the world are asking the question of how to free humanity from the limitations of the body. The line between healing and augmentation becomes blurred. In addition, the logical progression of research is to achieve a perfect human being through new technological standards. In the wake of the U.S. Brain Initiative initiated in 2014, all the major powers (EU/China/ Russia) have launched their own brain research programs with substantial fundings. China sees the brain “as the HQ of the Human body and precisely attacking the HQ is one of the most effective strategies for determining victory or defeat on the battlefield” .
35 The revolution in NBIC (Nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science) including advances in genomics, has the potential for dual-use technology development. A wide range of military applications such as improving the performance of soldiers, developing new weapons such as directed energy weapons are already discussed. Progress and Viability of Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T) Neuroscience employs a variety of methods and technologies to evaluate and influence neurologic substrates and processes of cognition, emotion, and behaviour. In general, brain science can be either basic or applied research. Basic research focuses upon obtaining knowledge and furthering understanding of structures and functions of the nervous system on a variety of levels by employing methods of the physical and natural sciences. Applied research seeks to develop translational approaches that can be directly utilised to understand and modify the physiology, psychology, and/or pathology of target organisms, including humans. Neuroscientific methods and technologies (neuroS/T) can be further categorised as those used to assess, and those used to affect the structures and functions of the nervous system, although these categories and actions are not mutually exclusive. For example, the use of certain drugs, toxins, and probes to elucidate functions of various sites of the central and peripheral nervous system can also affect neural activity. NeuroS/T is broadly considered a natural and/or life science and there is implicit and explicit intent, if not expectation to develop and employ tools and outcomes of research in clinical medicine. Neuroscientific techniques, technologies, and information could be used for medical as well as non-medical (educational, occupational, lifestyle, military, etc.) purposes .
36 It is questionable whether the uses, performance enablements, and resulting capabilities could (or should) be used in intelligence and/or diplomatic operations to mitigate and subvert aggression, violence, and conflict. Of more focal concern are uses of research findings and products to directly facilitate the performance of combatants, the integration of human-machine interfaces to optimise combat capabilities of semi-autonomous vehicles (e.g., drones), and development of biological and chemical weapons (i.e., neuroweapons). Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 19 of 45 Some NATO Nations have already acknowledged that neuroscientific techniques and technologies have high potential for operational use in a variety of security, defense and intelligence enterprises, while recognising the need to address the current and short-term ethical, legal and social issues generated by such use .
37 Military and Intelligence Use of NeuroS/T The use of neuroS/T for military and intelligence purposes is realistic, and represents a clear and present concern. In 2014, a US report asserted that neuroscience and technology had matured considerably and were being increasingly considered, and in some cases evaluated for operational use in security, intelligence, and defense operations. More broadly, the iterativerecognition of the viability of neuroscience and technology in these agenda reflects the paceand breadth of developments in the field. Although a number of nations have pursued, andare currently pursuing neuroscientific research and development for military purposes, perhaps the most proactive efforts in this regard have been conducted by the United States Department of Defense; with most notable and rapidly maturing research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). To be sure, many DARPA projects are explicitly directed toward advancing neuropsychiatric treatments and interventions that will improve both military and civilian medicine. Yet, it is important to note the prominent ongoing –and expanding – efforts in this domain by NATO European and trans-Pacific strategic competitor nations. As the 2008 National Research Council report stated, “… for good or for ill, an ability to better
38 – understand the capabilities of the body and brain… could be exploited for gathering intelligence, military operations, information management, public safety and forensics”. To paraphrase Aristotle, every human activity and tool can be regarded as purposed toward somedefinable “good”. However, definitions of “good” may vary, and what is regarded as good for some may present harm to others. The potential for neuroS/T to afford insight, understanding, and capability to affect cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of individuals and groups render the brain sciences particularly attractive for use in security, intelligence, and military/warfare initiatives. To approach this issue, it is important to establish four fundamental premises. • Firstly, neuroS/T is, and will be increasingly and more widely incorporated into approaches to national security, intelligence gathering and analysis, and aspects of military operations; • Secondly, such capabilities afford considerable power; • Thirdly, many countries are actively developing and subsidising neuro S/T research under dual-use agendas or for direct incorporation into military programs; • Fourthly, these international efforts could lead to a “capabilities race” as nations react to new developments by attempting to counter and/or improve upon one another’s discoveries. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 20 of 45 This type of escalation represents a realistic possibility with potential to affect international security. Such “brinksmanship” must be acknowledged as a potential impediment to attempts to develop analyses and guidelines (that inform or prompt policies) that seek to constrain or restrict these avenues of research and development. Neuroscientific techniques and technologies that are being utilised for military efforts include:
Neural systems modelling and human/brain-machine interactive networks in intelligence, training and operational systems;
Neuroscientific and neurotechnological approaches to optimising performance and resilience in combat and military support personnel;
Direct weaponisation of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Of note is that each and all may contribute to establishing a role for brain science on the 21st century battlescape. Direct Weaponisation of NeuroS/T The formal definition of a weapon as “a means of contending against others” can be extended to include any implement “…used to injure, defeat, or destroy”. Both definitions apply to products of neuroS/T research that can be employed in military/warfare scenarios. The objectives for neuroweapons in warfare may be achieved by augmenting or degrading functions of the nervous system, so as to affect cognitive, emotional and/or motor activity and capability (e.g., perception, judgment, morale, pain tolerance, or physical abilities and stamina) necessary for combat. Many technologies can be used to produce these effects, and there is demonstrated utility for neuroweapons in both conventional and irregular warfare scenarios. At present, outcomes and products of computational neuroscience and neuropharmacologic research could be used for more indirect applications, such as enabling human efforts by simulating, interacting with, and optimising brain functions, and the classification and detection of human cognitive, emotional, and motivational states to augment intelligence or counterintelligence tactics. Human/brain-machine interfacing neurotechnologies capable of optimising data assimilation and interpretation systems by mediating access to – and manipulation of – signal detection, processing, and/or integration are being explored for their potential to delimit “human weak links” in the intelligence chain. The weaponised use of neuroscientific tools and products is not new. Historically, such weapons which include nerve gas and various drugs, pharmacologic stimulants (e.g., amphetamines), sedatives, sensory stimuli, have been applied as neuroweapons to incapacitate the enemy, and even sleep deprivation and distribution of emotionally provocative information in psychological operations (i.e., PSYOPS) could rightly be regarded as forms of weaponised applications of neuroscientific and neurocognitive research. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 21 of 45 Products of neuroscientific and neurotechnological research can be utilised to affect 1) memory, learning, and cognitive speed; 2) wake-sleep cycles, fatigue and alertness; 3) impulse control; 4) mood, anxiety, and self-perception; 5) decision-making; 6) trust and empathy; 7) and movement and performance (e.g., speed, strength, stamina, motor learning, etc.). In military/warfare settings, modifying these functions can be utilised to mitigate aggression and foster cognitions and emotions of affiliation or passivity; induce morbidity, disability or suffering; and “neutralise” potential opponents or incur mortality. Neurodata The combination of multiple disciplines (e.g., the physical, social, and computational sciences), and intentional “technique and technology sharing” have been critical to rapid and numerous discoveries and developments in the brain sciences. This process, advanced integrative scientific convergence (AISC), can be seen as a paradigm for de-siloing disciplines toward fostering innovative use of diverse and complementary knowledge-, skill-, and tool-sets to both de-limit existing approaches to problem resolution; and to develop novel means ofexploring and furthering the boundaries of understanding and capability. Essential to theAISC approach in neuroscience is the use of computational (i.e., big data) methods and advancements to enable deepened insight and more sophisticated intervention to the structureand function(s) of the brain, and by extension, human cognition, emotion, and behaviour .
39 Such capacities in both computational and brain sciences have implications for biosecurity and defense initiatives. Several neurotechnologies can be employed kinetically (i.e., providing means to injure, defeat, or destroy adversaries) or non-kinetically (i.e., providing “means of contending against others,” especially in disruptive ways) engagements. While many types of neuroS/T have been addressed in and by extant forums, treaties, conventions, and laws, other newer techniques and technologies – inclusive of neurodata – have not. In this context, the term “neurodata” refers to the accumulation of large volumes of information; handling of large scale and often diverse informational sets; and new methods of data visualisation, assimilation, comparison, syntheses, and analyses. Such information can be used to: • more finely elucidate the structure and function of human brain; • and develop data repositories that can serve as descriptive or predictive metrics for neuropsychiatric disorders. Purloining and/or modifying such information could affect military and intelligence readiness, force conservation, and mission capability, and thus national security. Manipulation of both civilian and military neurodata would affect the type of medical care that is (or is not) Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 22 of 45 provided, could influence the ways that individuals are socially regarded and treated, and in these ways disrupt public health and incur socio-economic change. As the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed, public – and institutional public health – responses to novel pathogens are highly variable at best, chaotic at worst, and indubitablycostly (on many levels) in either case. To be sure, such extant gaps in public health and safetyinfrastructures and functions could be exploited by employing “precision pathologies” (capable of selectively affecting specific targets such as individuals, communities;, domestic animals, livestock, etc.) and an aggressive program of misinformation to incur disruptive effects on social, economic, political, and military scales that would threaten national stability andsecurity. Recent elucidation of the Chinese government’s Overseas Key Individuals Database(OKIDB), which, via collaboration with a corporate entity, Shenzhen Zhenua Data Technology, has amassed data to afford “insights into foreign political, military, and diplomatic figures…containing information on more than 2 million people…and tens of thousands whohold prominent public positions…” that could be engaged by “Beijing’s army of cyberhackers”. Digital biosecurity – a term that describes the intersection of computational systems and biological information and how to effectively prevent or mitigate current and emerging risk arising at this intersection – becomes ever more important and required. The convergence of neurobiology and computational capabilities, while facilitating beneficial advances in brain research and its translational applications, creates a vulnerable strategic asset that will besought by adversaries to advance their own goals for neuroscience. Hacking of biological data within the academic, industry, and the health care systems has already occurred – and neurodata are embedded within all of these domains. Thus, it is likely that there will be more direct attempts at harnessing neurodata to gain leverageable informational, social, legal, and military capability and power advantage(s), as several countries that are currently strategically competitive with the U.S. and its allies invest heavily in both neuro- and cyber-scientific research programs and infrastructure. The growing fortitude of these states’ quantitative and economic presence in these fields can – and is intended to – shift international leadership, hegemony, and influence ethical, technical, commercial and politico-military norms and standards of research and use. For example, Russian leadership has declared interest in the employment of “genetic passports” such that those in the military who display genetic indications of high cognitive performance can be directed to particularmilitary tasks. The neurobioeconomy Advancements in neuroS/T have contributed to much growth in the neuro-bioeconomy. With neurological disorders being the second leading cause of death worldwide (with approximately 9 million deaths; constituting 16.5% of global fatalities), several countries have initiated programs in brain research and innovation. These initiatives aim to: Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 23 of 45 1) advance understanding of substrates and mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders; 2) improve knowledge of processes of cognition, emotion, and behaviour; 3) and augment the methods for studying, assessing, and affecting the brain and its functions. New research efforts incorporate best practices for interdisciplinary approaches that can utilise advances in computer science, robotics, and artificial intelligence to fortify the scope and pace of neuroscientific capabilities and products. Such research efforts are strong drivers of innovation and development, both by organising larger research goals, and by shaping neuroS/T research to meet defined economic, public health, and security agendas. Rapid advances in brain science represent an emerging domain that state and non-state actors can leverage in warfare. While not all brain sciences engender security concerns, predominant authority and influence in global biomedical, bioengineering, wellness/lifestyle, and defense markets enable a considerable exercise of power. It is equally important to note that such power can be exercised both non-kinetic and kinetic operational domains, and several countries have identified neuroS/T as viable, of value, and of utility in their warfare programs. While extant treaties (e.g., the BTWC and CWC40) and laws have addressed particular products of the brain sciences (e.g., chemicals, biological agents, and toxins), other forms of neuroS/T, (e.g., neurotechnologies and neuroinformatics) remain outside these conventions’ focus, scope, and governance. Technology can influence, if not shape the norms and conduct of warfare, and the future battlefield will depend not only upon achieving “biological dominance”, but achieving “mental/cognitive dominance” and “intelligence dominance” as well. It will be ever more difficult to regulate and restrict military and security applications of neuroS/T without established standards and proper international oversight of research and potential use-in-practice.
* * *. * In sum, it is not a question of whether neuro S/T will be utilised in military, intelligence, and political operations, but rather when, how, to what extent, and perhaps most importantly, if NATO nations will be prepared to address, meet, counter, or prevent these risks and threats. In this light (and based upon the information presented) it is, and will be increasingly important to address the complex issues generated by the brain sciences’ influence upon global biosecurity and the near-term future scope and conduct of both non-kinetic and kinetic military and intelligence operations.41 Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 24 of 45 Towards a new operational domain The advent of the concept of “cognitive warfare” (CW) brings a third major combat dimension to the modern battlefield: to the physical and informational dimensions is now added a cognitive dimension. It creates a new space of competition, beyond the land, maritime, air, cybernetic and spatial domains, which adversaries have already integrated. In a world permeated with technology, warfare in the cognitive domain mobilises a wider range of battle spaces than the physical and informational dimensions can do. Its very essence is to seize control of human beings (civilian as well as military), organisations, nations, butalso of ideas, psychology, especially behavioural, thoughts, as well as the environment. In addition, rapid advances in brain science, as part of a broadly defined cognitive warfare, have
the potential to greatly expand traditional conflicts and produce effects at lower cost. Through the joint action it exerts on the 3 dimensions (physical, informational and cognitive), cognitive warfare embodies the idea of combat without fighting dear to Sun Tzu (“The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting”). It therefore requires the mobilisation of a much broader knowledge. Future conflicts will likely occur amongst the people digitally first and physically thereafter in proximity to hubs of political and economic power.
42 The study of the cognitive domain, thus centred on the human being, constitutes a new major challenge that is indispensable to any strategy relating to the combat power generation of the future. Cognition is our “thinking machine”. The function of cognition is to perceive, to pay attention, to memorise, to reason, to produce movements, to express oneself, to decide. To act on cognition means to act on the human being. Therefore, defining a cognitive domain would be too restrictive; a human domain would therefore be more appropriate. While actions taken in the five domains are executed in order to have an effect on the human domain , cognitive warfare’s objective is to make everyone a weapon.
43 To turn the situation around, NATO must strive to define in a very broad sense and must have a clear awareness of the meanings and advances of international actors providing NATO with specific strategic security and broader challenges in the field of cognitive warfare. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 25 of 45 Russian and Chinese Cognitive Warfare Definition Russian Reflexive Control In 2012, Vladimir Karyakin added: “The advent of information and network technologies, coupled with advances in psychology regarding the study of human behaviour and the control of people’s motivations, make it possible to exert a specified effect on large social groups but [also] to also reshape the consciousness of entire peoples.”
44 Russian CW falls under the definition of the Reflexive Control Doctrine. It is an integrated operation that compels an adversary decision maker to act in favour of Russia by altering their perception of the world .
45 This goes beyond “pure deception” because it uses multiple inputs to the decision maker using both true and false information, ultimately aiming to make the target feel that the decision to change their behaviour was their own:
The Reflexive Control is ultimately aimed at the target’s decision making.
The information transmitted must be directed towards a decision or position.
The information must be adapted to the logic, culture, psychology and emotions of the target. The reflexive control has been turned into a broader concept taking into account the opportunities offered by new IT technologies called ‘Perception Management’. It is about controlling perception and not managing perception. The Russian CW is based on an in-depth understanding of human targets thanks to the study of sociology, history, psychology, etc. of the target and the extensive use of information technology. As shown in Ukraine, Russia used her in-depth knowledge as a precursor and gained a strategic advantage before the physical conflict. Russia has prioritised Cognitive Warfare as a precursor to the military phase.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 26 of 45 China Cognitive Warfare Domain China has adopted an even broader definition of CW that includes the systematic utilisation of cognitive science and biotechnology to achieve the “mind superiority.” China has defined the Cognitive Domain of Operations as the battlefield for conducting ideological penetration (…) aiming at destroying troop morale and cohesion, as well as forming or deconstructing operational capabilities” It encompasses six technologies, divided across two categories (Cognition, which includes technologies that affect someone’s ability to think and function; and subliminal cognition that covers technologies that target a person’s underlying emotions, knowledge, willpower and beliefs). In particular, “Chinese innovation is poised to pursue synergies among brain science, artificial intelligence (AI), and biotechnology that may have far-reaching implications for its future military power and aggregate national competitiveness.”
46 The goal of cognitive operations is to achieve the “mind superiority” by using information to influence an adversary’s cognitive functions, spanning from peacetime public opinion to wartime decision-making.
47 Chinese strategists predict that the pace and complexity of operations will increase dramatically, as the form or character of warfare continues to evolve. As a result, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) strategists are concerned about the intense cognitive challenges that future commanders will face, especially considering the importance of optimising coordination and human-machine fusion or integration. These trends have necessarily increased the PLA’s interest in the military relevance not only of artificial intelligence, but also of brain science and new directions in interdisciplinary biological technologies, ranging from biosensing and biomaterials to human enhancement options. The shift from computerisation to intelligentisation is seen as requiring the improvement of human cognitive performance to keep pace with the complexity of warfare” .
48 As part of its Cognitive Domain of Operations, China has defined “Military Brain Science (MBS) as a cutting-edge innovative science that uses potential military application as the guidance. It can bring a series of fundamental changes to the concept of combat and combat methods, creating a whole new “brain war” combat style and redefining the battlefield.”49 The pursuit of advances in the field of MBS is likely to provide cutting edge advances to China.The development of MBS by China benefits from a multidisciplinary approach between human sciences, medicine, anthropology, psychology etc. and also benefits from “civil” advances in the field, civilian research benefiting military research by design. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 27 of 45 “The sphere of operations will be expanded from the physical domain and the information domain to the domain of consciousness, the human brain will become a new combat space.” He Fuchu, “The Future Direction of the New Global Revolution in Military Affairs. It’s about Humans A cognitive attack is not a threat that can be countered in the air, on land, at sea, in cyberspace, or in space. Rather, it may well be happening in any or all of these domains, for onesimple reason: humans are the contested domain. As previously demonstrated, the human is very often the main vulnerability and it should be acknowledged in order to protect NATO’s human capital but also to be able to benefit from our adversaries’s vulnerabilities. “Cognition is natively included in the Human Domain, thus a cognitive domain would be too restrictive”, claimed August Cole and Hervé Le Guyader in “NATO’s 6th domain” and: “…the Human Domain is the one defining us as individuals and structuring our societies. It has its own specific complexity compared to other domains, because of the large number of sciences it’s based upon (…) and these are those our adversaries are focusing on to identify our centres of gravity, our vulnerabilities.” .
50 The practice of war shows that although physical domain warfare can weaken the military capabilities of the enemy, it cannot achieve all the purposes of war. In the face of new contradictions and problems in ideology, religious belief and national identity, advanced weapons and technologies may be useless and their effects can even create new enemies. It is therefore difficult if not impossible to solve the problem of the cognitive domain by physical domain warfare alone. The importance of the Human Environment The Human Domain is not solely focusing of the military human capital. It encompasses the human capital of a theatre of operations as a whole (civilian populations, ethnic groups, leaders…), but also the concepts closely related to humans such as leadership, organisation, decision-making processes, perceptions and behaviour. Eventually the desired effect should be defined within the Human Domain (aka the desired behaviour we want to achieve: collaboration/ cooperation, competition, conflict). “To win (the future) war, the military must be culturally knowledgeable enough to thrive in an alien environment” .
51 In the 21st century, strategic advantage will come from how to engage with people, understand them, and access political, economic, cultural and social networks to achieve a position of relative advantage that complements the sole military force. These interactions are not reducible to the physical boundaries of land, air, sea, cyber and space, which tend to focus on geography and terrain characteristics. They represent a network of networks that define power and interests in a connected world. The actor that best understands local contexts and builds a network around relationships that harness local capabilities is more likely to win. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 28 of 45 “Victory will be defined more in terms of capturing the psycho-cultural rather than the geographical high ground. Understanding and empathy will be important weapons of war.” Maj. Gen. Robert H. Scales For the historian Alan Beyerchen, social sciences will be the amplifier of the 21st century’s wars.
52 In the past wars, the problem was that the human factor could not be a significant amplifier simply because its influence was limited and difficult to exploit; humans were considered more as constants than as variables. Certainly, soldiers could be improved through training, selection, psychological adaptation and, more recently, education. But in the end, the human factor was reduced to numbers. The larger the army, the greater the chance of winning the war, although the action of a great strategist could counterbalance this argument. Tomorrow, to have better soldiers and more effective humans will be key. Last, the recent developments in science, all kinds of science, including science related to the human domain, have empowered anyone, whether individuals or committed minorities, with potential devastating power at their disposal. It has created a situation never seen before in the history of mankind , where individuals or small groups may jeopardise the success of 53 military operations. The crucible of Data Sciences and Human Sciences The combination of Social Sciences and System Engineering will be key in helping military analysts to improve the production of intelligence for the sake of decision-making .
54 The Human Domain of Operations refers to the whole human environment, whether friend of foe. In a digital age it is equally important to understand first NATO’s own human strengths and vulnerabilities before the ones of adversaries. Since everyone is much more vulnerable than before everyone needs to acknowledge that one may endanger the security of the overall. Hence, a deep understanding of the adversary’s human capital (i.e. the human environment of the military operation) will be more crucial than ever. “If kinetic power cannot defeat the enemy, (…) psychology and related behavioural and social sciences stand to fill the void.55” “Achieving the strategic outcomes of war will necessarily go through expanding the dialogue around the social sciences of warfare alongside the “physical sciences” of warfare..(…) it will go through understanding, influence or exercise control within the “human domain”.
56 Leveraging social sciences will be central to the development of the Human Domain Plan of Operations. It will support the combat operations by providing potential courses of action for the whole surrounding Human Environment including enemy forces, but also determining key human elements such as the Cognitive center of gravity, the desired behaviour as the end state. Understanding the target’s goals, strengths, and vulnerabilities is paramount to an operation for enduring strategic outcomes. The deeper the understanding of the human environment, the greater will be the freedom of action and relative advantage. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 29 of 45 Psychology and social sciences have always been essential to warfare, and while warfare is moving away from kinetic operations, they might be the new game changer. Psychology, for instance, can help to understand the personal motives of terrorist groups and the social dynamics that make them so attractive to the (mostly) young men who join their ranks. As an example, the picture below depicts a methodology (called Weber) applied to the study of terrorist groups in Sahel. It combines Social Sciences and System Engineering in order to help predicting the behaviours of terrorist groups. The tool allows the decision-makers to assess the evolution of actors through behavioural patterns according to several criteria and social science parameters, and ultimately to anticipate courses of action.
57 The analysis, turned towards understanding the other in the broad sense (and often nonWestern), cannot do without anthropology. Social and cultural anthropology is a formidable tool for the analyst, the best way to avoid yielding to one of the most common biases of intelligence, ethnocentrism, i.e. the inability to get rid of mental structures and representations of one’s own cultural environment. Cognitive sciences can be leveraged to enhance training at every level, especially in order to improve the ability to make decisions in complex tactical situations. Cognitive sciences can be employed in the creation of highly efficient and flexible training programs that can respond to fast-changing problems. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 30 of 45 Legal and ethical aspects Legal aspects The development, production and use of Cognitive Technologies for military purposes raise questions as to whether, and to what extent, existing legal instruments apply. That is, how the relevant provisions are to be interpreted and applied in light of the specific technological characteristics and to what extent international law can sufficiently respond to the legal challenges involved with the advent of such technology. It is essential to ensure that international law and accepted norms will be able to take into account the development of cognitive technologies. Specifically, to ensure that such technologies are capable of being used in accordance with applicable law and accepted international norms. NATO, through its various apparatus, should work at establishing a common understanding of how cognitive weapons might be employed to be compliant with the law and accepted international norms. Equally, NATO should consider how the Law of Armed Conflict (LoAC) would apply to the use of cognitive technologies in any armed conflict in order to ensure that any future development has a framework from which to work within. Full compliance with the rules and principles of LoAC is essential. Given the complexity and contextual nature of the potential legal issues raised by Cognitive technologies and techniques, and the constraints associated with this NATO sponsored study, further work will be required to analyse this issue fully. Therefore, it is recommended that such work be conducted by an appropriate body and that NATO Nations collaborate in establishing a set of norms and expectations about the use and development of Cognitive technologies. The immediate focus being how they might be used within extant legal frameworks and the Law of Armed Conflict. Ethics This area of research – human enhancement and cognitive weapons – is likely to be the subject of major ethical and legal challenges, but we cannot afford to be on the back foot when international actors are already developing strategies and capabilities to employ them. There is a need to consider these challenges as there is not only the possibility that these human enhancement technologies are deliberately used for malicious purposes, but there may be implications for the ability of military personnel to respect the law of armed conflict. It is equally important to recognise the potential side effects (such as speech impairment, memory impairment, increased aggression, depression and suicide) of these technologies. For example, if any cognitive enhancement technology were to undermine the capacity of a subject to comply with the law of armed conflict, it would be a source of very serious concern. The development, and use of, cognitive technologies present numerous ethical challenges as well as ethical benefits, such as recovery from Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Policy makers should take these challenges seriously as they develop policy about Cognitive Technologies, explore issues in greater depth and determine if other ethical issues may arise as this, and other related, technology develops. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 31 of 45 Recommendations for NATO The need for cooperation.While the objective of Cognitive Warfare is to harm societies and not only the military, this type of warfare resembles to “shadow wars” and requires a whole-of-government approach to warfare. As previously stated, the modern concept of war is not about weapons but about influence. To shape perceptions and control the narrative during this type of war, battle will have to be fought in the cognitive domain with a whole-of-government approach at the national level. This will require improved coordination between the use of force and the other levers of power across government. This could mean changes to how defence is resourced, equipped, and organised in order to offer military options below the threshold of armed conflict and improve the military contribution to resilience. For NATO, the development of actions in the cognitive domain also requires a sustained cooperation between Allies in order to ensure an overall coherence, to build credibility and to allow a concerted defense. Within the military, expertise on anthropology, ethnography, history, psychology among other areas will be more than ever required to cooperate with the military, in order to derive qualitative insights from quantitative data, as an example. In other words, if the declaration of a new field of combat consecrates the new importance of humans, it is more about rethinking the interaction between the hard sciences and the social sciences. The rise of cognitive technologies has endowed human with superior analysis and accuracy. In order to deliver timely and robust decisions, it will not be a question of relying solely on human cognitive capacities but of cross engineering systems with social sciences (sociology, anthropology, criminology, political science…) in order to face complex and multifaceted situations. The modelisation of human dynamics as part of what is known as Computational Social Science will allow the use of knowledge from social sciences and relating to the behaviour of social entities, whether enemies or allies. By mapping the human environment, strategists and key military leaders will be provided reliable information to decide on the right strategy. Definition of the Human Domain Thus defined by NATO’s major adversaries, the mastery of the field of perceptions is an abstract space where understanding of oneself (strengths and weaknesses), of the other (adversary, enemy, human environment), psychological dimension, intelligence collection, search for ascendancy (influence, taking and conservation of the initiative) and capacity to reduce the will of the adversary are mixed. Within the context of multi-domain operations, the human domain is arguably the most important domain, but it is often the most overlooked. Recent wars have shown the inability to achieve the strategic goals (e.g. in Afghanistan) but also to understand foreign and complex human environments. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 32 of 45 Cognitive warfare was forced upon the Western liberal democracies by challenging international actors who have strategised to avoid the military confrontation, thus blurring the line between peace and war by targeting the weakest element: humans. CW which includes the increasing use of NBICs for military purposes may provide a sure way of military dominance in a near future. “Military power is of course one essential segment of security. But global security refers to a broad range of threats, risks, policy responses that span political, economic, societal, health (including cognitive health!) and environmental dimensions, none of these being covered by your current domains of operations! Some international actors already use weapons that precisely target these dimensions, while keeping their traditional kinetic arsenal in reserve as long as they possibly can. NATO, if it wishes to survive, has to embrace this continuum and claim as its responsibility, together with its allies to, seamlessly, achieve superiority all across it.”58 Raising awareness among Allies While advances in technology have always resulted in changes in military organisations and doctrines, the rapid advancements in technology, in particular in brain science and NBIC, should force NATO to take action and give a greater consideration to the emergence of the threats that represents Cognitive Warfare. Not all NATO nations have recognised this changing character of conflicts. Declaring the Human as sixth domain of operations is a way to raise awareness among the NATO Nations. NATO should consider further integrating Human situational awareness in the traditional situation awareness processes of the Alliance. Anticipating the trends There is evidence that adversaries have already understood the potential of developing human-related technologies. Declaring the Human Domain as a sixth domain of operations has the potential to reveal possible vulnerabilities, which could otherwise amplify rapidly. It is not too late to face the problem and help keep the dominance in the field of cognition. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 33 of 45 The Human Domain of operations could tentatively be defined as “the sphere of interest in which strategies and operations can be designed and implemented that, by targeting the cognitive capacities of individuals and/or communities with a set of specific tools and techniques, in particular digital ones, will influence their perception and tamper with their reasoning capacities, hence gaining control of their decision making, perception and behaviour levers in order to achieve desired effects.” Delays in declaring the Human Domain as a domain of operations may lead to fight the last war. Given that the process of declaring a new domain of operations is a lengthy process and given the sensitivity of the topic, NATO needs to be fast in focusing on political/military responses while capacity/threats of our opponents are still low. Finally, ethical problems should be raised. Since there is no agreed international legal framework in the field of neurosciences, NATO may play a role in pushing to establish an international legal framework that meets the NATO Nations’ ethical standards. Accelerating information sharing Accelerated information sharing among Alliance members may help faster integration of interoperability, to assure coherence across multi-domain operations. Information sharing may also assist some nations in catching up in this area. In particular, surveillance of ongoing international activities in brain science, and their potential dual-use in military and intelligence operations should be undertaken and shared between Allies along with identification and quantification of current and near-term risks and threats posed by such enterprises. Establishing DOTMLPFI components upstream The first step is to define the “human domain” in military doctrine and use the definition toconduct a full spectrum of capability development analysis, optimising the military for the most likely 21st century contingencies. Since the Human Domain complements the five others, each capability development should include the specificities of modern threats, including those related to cognitive warfare and, more generally, the sixth domain of operations. The Human Domain is not an end in itself but a means to achieve our strategic objectives and to respond to a type of conflict that the military is not accustomed to dealing with. Dedication of resources for developing and sustaining NATO Nations capabilities to prevent escalation of future risk and threat by: 1) continued surveillance; 2) organisational and systemic preparedness; 3) coherence in any/all entities necessary to remain apace with, and/or ahead of tactical and strategic competitors’ and adversary’s capabilities in this space. Impact on Warfare Development By essence, defining a new domain of operations and all the capabilities and concepts that go along with it, is part of ACT’s mission. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 34 of 45 ACT should lead a further in-depth study with a focus on: • Advancements on brain science initiatives that may be developed and used for nonkinetic and kinetic engagements. • Different ethical systems that govern neuroscientific research and development. This will mandate a rigorous, more granular, and dialectical approach to negotiate and resolve issues and domains of ethical dissonance in multi- and international biosecurity discourses. • Ongoing review and evaluation of national intellectual property laws, both in relation to international law(s), and in scrutiny of potential commercial veiling of dual-use enterprises. • Identification and quantification of current and near-term risks and threats posed by such enterprise(s) • Better recognizing the use of social and human sciences in relation with “hard” sciences to better understand the human environment (internal and external) • Include the cognitive dimension in every NATO exercises by leveraging new tools and techniques such as immersive technologies Along with those studies, anticipating the first response (such as the creation of a new NATO COE or rethink and adapt the structure by strengthening branches as required) and defining a common agreed taxonomy (Cognitive Dominance/Superiority/Cognitive Center of Gravity etc…) will be key tasks for ACT to help NATO keep the military edge. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 35 of 45 Conclusion Failing to thwart the cognitive efforts of NATO’s opponents would condemn Western liberal societies to lose the next war without a fight. If NATO fails to build a sustainable and proactive basis for progress in the cognitive domain, it may have no other option than kinetic conflict. Kinetic capabilities may dictate a tactical or operational outcome, but victory in the long run will remain solely dependent on the ability to influence, affect, change or impact the cognitive domain. Because the factors that affect the cognitive domain can be involved in all aspects of human society through the areas of will, concept, psychology and thinking among other, so that particular kind of warfare penetrates into all fields of society. It can be foreseen that the future information warfare will start from the cognitive domain first, to seize the political and diplomatic strategic initiative, but it will also end in the cognitive realm. Preparing for high-intensity warfare remains highly relevant, but international actors providing NATO with specific strategic security challenges have strategised to avoid confronting NATO in kinetic conflicts and chose an indirect form of warfare. Information plays a key role in this indirect form of warfare but the advent of cognitive warfare is different from simple Information Warfare: it is a war through information, the real target being the human mind, and beyond the human per se. Moreover, progresses in NBIC make it possible to extend propaganda and influencing strategies. The sophistication of NBIC-fueled hybrid attacks today represent an unprecedented level of threat inasmuch they target the most vital infrastructure everyone relies on: the human mind . 59 Cognitive warfare may well be the missing element that allows the transition from military victory on the battlefield to lasting political success. The human domain might well be the decisive domain, wherein multi-domain operations achieve the commander’s effect. The five first domains can give tactical and operational victories; only the human domain can achieve the final and full victory. “Recognising the human domain and generating concepts and capabilities to gain advantage therein would be a disruptive innovation.”
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 36 of 45 “Today’s progresses in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC), boosted by the seemingly unstoppable march of a triumphant troika made of Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and civilisational “digital addiction” have created a much more ominous prospect: an embedded fifth column, where everyone, unbeknownst to him or her, is behaving according to the plans of one of our competitors.” August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader NATO’s 6th Domain Bibliography and Sources Essays August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO 6th Domain of Operations, September 2020 Dr. James Giordano, Emerging Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T): Current and Near-Term Risks and Threats to NATO Biosecurity, October 2020 Article Nicolas Israël and Sébastien-Yves Laurent, “Analysis Facing Worldwide Jihadist Violence and Conflicts. What to do?” September 2020 Online Collaboration with Johns Hopkins University “Cognitive Biotechnology, Altering the Human Experience”, Sep 2020 “Cognitive Warfare, an attack on truth and thoughts”, Sep 2020 Under the direction of Professor Lawrence Aronhnime Contributors: Alonso Bernal, Cameron Carter, Melanie Kemp, Ujwal Arunkumar Taranath, Klinzman Vaz, Ishpreet Singh, Kathy Cao, Olivia Madreperla Experiments DTEX (Disruptive Technology Experiment) – 7 October 2020 NATO Innovation Hub Disruptive Technology Experiment (DTEX) on disinformation. Under the direction of Girish Sreevatsan Nandakumar (Old Dominion University) Hackathon “Hacking the Mind” Run by Dr. Kristina Soukupova and the Czech Republic Defense and Security Innovation Hub, October 2020. https://www.hackthemind.cz Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 37 of 45 Annex 1 Nation State Case Study 1: The weaponisation of neurosciences in China. As described in the Five-Year Plans (FYPs) and other national strategies, China has identified and acknowledged the technical, economic, medical, military, and political value of the brain sciences, and has initiated efforts to expand its current neuroS/T programs. China utilises broader strategic planning horizons than other nations and attempts to combine efforts from government, academic, and commercial sectors (i.e., the “triple helix”) to accomplish cooperation and centralisation of national agendas. This coordination enables research projects andobjectives to be used for a range of applications and outcomes (e.g., medical, social, military). As noted by Moo Ming Poo, director of China’s Brain Project, China’s growing aging population is contributing to an increasing incidence and prevalence of dementia and other neurological diseases. In their most recent FYP, China addressed economic and productivity concerns fostered by this aging population, with a call to develop medical approaches for neurological disorders and to expand research infrastructure in neuro S/T. This growing academic environment has been leveraged to attract and solicit multi-national collaboration. In this way, China is affecting international neuroS/T through 1) research tourism; 2) control of intellectual property; 3) medical tourism; 4) and influence in global scientific thought. While these strategies are not exclusive to neuroS/T; they may be more opportunistic in the brain sciences because the field isnew, expanding rapidly, and its markets are growing, and being defined by both share- and stake-holder interests. Research tourism involves strategically recruiting renowned, experienced scientists (mostly from Western countries), as well as junior scientists to contribute to and promote the growth, innovation, and prestige of Chinese scientific and technological enterprises. This is apparent by two primary efforts. First, initiatives such as the Thousand Talents Program (launched in 2008) and other programs (e.g., Hundred Person Program, Spring Light Program, Youth Thousand Talents Program, etc.) aim to attract foreign researchers, nurture and sustain domestic talent, and bring back Chinese scientists who have studied or worked abroad. Further, China’s ethical research guidelines are, in some domains, somewhat more permissive than those in the West (e.g., unrestricted human and/or non-human primate experimentation), and the director of China’s Brain Project, Mu-Ming Poo, has stated that this capability to engage research that may not be (ethically) viable elsewhere may (and should) explicitly attract international scientists to conduct research in China. Second, China continues to engage with leading international brain research institutions to foster greater cooperation. These cooperative and collective research efforts enable China to Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 38 of 45 achieve a more even “playing field” in the brain sciences. China leverages intellectual property (IP) policy and law to advance (and veil) neuroS/T and other biotechnologies in several ways. First, via exploitation of their patent process by creating a “patent thicket”. The Chinese patent system focuses on the end-utility of a product (e.g., a specific neurological function in a device), rather than emphasising the initial innovative idea in contrast to the U.S. system. Thisenables Chinese companies and/or institutions to copy or outrightly usurp foreign patents and products. Moreover, Chinese patent laws allow international research products and ideas to be used in China “for the benefit of public health,” or for “a major technological advancement.” Second, the aforementioned coordination of brain science institutions and the corporate sector establishes compulsory licensing under Chinese IP and patent laws. This strategy (i.e., “lawfare”) allows Chinese academic and corporate enterprises to have economic and legal support, while reciprocally enabling China to direct national research agendas and directives through these international neuroS/T collaborations. China enforces its patent and IP rights worldwide, which can create market saturation of significant and innovative products, and could create international dependence upon Chinese neuroS/T. Further, Chinese companies have been heavily investing in knowledge industries, including artificial intelligence enterprises, and academic book and journal partnerships. For example, TenCent established a partnership with Springer Nature to engage in various educational products. This will allow a significant stake in future narratives and dissemination of scientific and technological discoveries. Medical tourism is explicit or implicit attraction and solicitation of international individuals or groups to seek interventions that are either only available, or more affordable in a particular locale. Certainly, China has a presence in this market, and at present, available procedures range from the relatively sublime, such as using deep brain stimulation to treat drug addiction, to the seemingly “science-fictional”, such as the recently proposed body-to-head transplant to be conducted at Harbin Medical University in collaboration with Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero. China can advance and develop areas of neuroS/T in ways that other countries cannot or will not, through homogenising a strong integrated “bench to bedside” capability and use of non-Western ethical guidelines. China may specifically target treatments for diseases that may have a high global impact, and/or could offer procedures that are not available in other countries (for either socio-political or ethical reasons). Such medical tourism could create an international dependence on Chinese markets as individuals become reliant on products and services available only in China, in addition to those that are “made in China” for ubiquitous use elsewhere. China’s growing biomedical industry, ongoing striving for innovation, and expanding manufacturing capabilities have positioned their pharmaceutical and technology companies to prominence in world markets. Such positioning – and the somewhat permissive ethics that enable particular aspects and types of experimentation – may be seductive to international scientists to engage research, and/or commercial biomedical production within China’s sovereign borders. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 39 of 45 Through these tactics of economic infiltration and saturation, China can create power hierarchies that induce strategically latent “bio-political” effects that influence real and perceived positional dominance of global markets. China is not the only country that has differing ethical codes for governing research. Of note is that Russia has been, and continues to devote resources to neuroS/T, and while not uniformly allied with China, has developed projects and programs that enable the use of neurodata for non-kinetic and/or kinetic applications. Such projects, programs, and operations can be conducted independently and/or collaboratively to exercise purchase over competitors and adversaries so as to achieve greater hegemony and power. Therefore, NATO, and its international allies must 4) recognise the reality of other countries’ science and technological capabilities; 5) evaluate what current and near-term trends portend for global positions, influence, and power; 6) and decide how to address differing ethical and policy views on innovation, research, and product development. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 40 of 45 Annex 2 Nation State Case Study 2: The Russian National Technology Initiative61 Russian President Vladimir Putin has explicitly stated intent to implement an aggressive modernisation plan via the National Technology Initiative (NTI). Designed to grant an overmatch advantage in both commercial and military domains against Russia’s current and nearterm future key competitors, the NTI has been viewed as somewhat hampered by the nation’s legacy of government control, unchanging economic complexity, bureaucratic inefficiency and overall lack of transparency. However, there are apparent disparities between such assessment of the NTI and its capabilities, and Russia’s continued invention and successful deployment of advanced technologies. Unlike the overt claims and predictions made by China’s scientific and political communities about the development and exercise of neuroS/T to re-balance global power, explication and demonstration(s) of Russian efforts in neuroS/T tend to be subtle, and detailed information about surveillance and extent of such enterprise and activity is, for the most part, restricted to the classified domain. In general, Russian endeavours in this space tend to build upon prior work conducted under the Soviet Union, and while not broad in focus, have gained relative sophistication and capability in particular areas that have high applicability in non-kinetic disruptive engagements. Russia’s employments of weaponised information, and neurotropic agents have remained rather low-key, if not clandestine (and perhaps covert), often entail nation-state or non-state actors as proxies, and are veiled by a successful misinformation campaign to prevent accurate assessment of their existing and developing science and technologies. Military science and technology efforts of the USSR were advanced and sustained primarily due to the extensive military-industrial complex which, by the mid-1970s through 1980s, is estimated to have employed up to twenty percent of the workforce. This enabled the USSR to become a world leader in science and technology, ranked by the U.S. research community as second in the world for clandestine S&T programs (only because the overall Soviet system of research and development (R&D) was exceptionally inefficient, even within the military sector). The collapse of the USSR ended the Soviet military-industrial complex, which resulted in significant decreases in overall spending and state support for R&D programs. Any newly implemented reforms of the post-Soviet state were relatively modest, generating suboptimal R&D results at best. During this time, Russian R&D declined by approximately 60% and aside from the Ministries’ involvement with the military sector, there was a paucity of direct cooperation between Russian R&D institutions and operational S&T enterprises. This limited interaction, was further compounded by a lack of resources, inability to bring new technologyto markets, absent protections for intellectual property, and “brain drain” exodus of talented researchers to nations with more modern, cutting-edged programs with better pay and opportunities for advancement. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 41 of 45 Recognising the inherent problems with the monoculture of the Russian economic and S&T ecosystems, the Putin government initiated a process of steering Russia toward more lucrative, high-tech enterprises. The NTI is ambitious, with goals to fully realise a series of S&T/ R&D advancements by 2035. The central objective of the NTI is establish “the program for creation of fundamentally new markets and the creation of conditions for global technological leadership of Russia by 2035.” To this end, NTI Experts and the Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI) identified nine emerging high-tech markets for prime focus and penetrance, including neuroscience and technology (i.e., what the ASI termed “NeuroNet”). Substantive investment in this market is aimed at overcoming the post-Soviet “resource curse”, by capitalising on the changes in global technology markets – and engagement sectors – to expand both economic and military/intelligence priorities and capabilities. According to the ASI, NeuroNet is focused upon “distributed artificial elements of consciousness and mentality”, withRussia’s prioritisation of neuroS/T being a key factor operative in influence operations directed and global economies and power. Non-kinetic operations represent the most viable intersection and exercise of these commercial, military, and political priorities, capabilities, and foci of global influence and effect(s). Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 42 of 45 Notes Robert P. Kozloski, https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2018/02/01/knowing_your 1 – self_is_key_in_cognitive_warfare_112992.html, February 2018 Green, Stuart A. “Cognitive Warfare.” The Augean Stables , Joint Military Intelligence College, July 2008, 2 http://www.theaugeanstables.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Green-Cognitive-Warfare.pdf. Clint Watts, (2018 ) Messing with the Enemy, HarperCollins 3 As defined by Wikipedia, a sock puppet or sockpuppet is an online identity used for purposes of deception. It 4 usually refers to the Russian online activism during the US electoral campaign 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Sock_puppet_account https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/2019-11/CognitiveWarfare.pdf 5 Dr Zac Rogers, in Mad Scientist 158, (July 2019), https://madsciblog.tradoc.army.mil/158-in-the-cognitive- 6 war-the-weapon-is-you/ 7 August Cole-Hervé Le Guyader, NATO 6th Domain of Operation, 2020 Ibid. 8 Alicia Wanless, Michael Berk (2017), Participatory Propaganda: The Engagement of Audiences in the Spread of 9 Persuasive Communications: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329281610_Participatory_Propaganda_The_Engagement_of_Audiences_in_the_Spread_of_Persuasive_Communications 10 Jacques Ellul, (1962) Propaganda, Edition Armand Colin Matt Chessen, The MADCOM Future: How AI will enhance computational propaganda, The Atlantic Council, 11 Sep 2017 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/al_economics 12 Shoshana Zuboff, (2019) The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, Public Affairs 13 Peter W. Singer, Emerson T. Brooking (2018) LikeWar The Weaponisation of Social Media, HMH Edition page 14 95 Victoria Fineberg, (August 2014 ) Behavioural Economics of Cyberspace Operations, Journal of Cyber Security 15 and Information Systems Volume: 2 Shoshana Zuboff, (2019) The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, Public Affairs 16 17 Michael J Mazarr, (July 2020) Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, Virtual Territorial Integrity: The Next International Norm, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, IISS 18 Bernard Claverie and Barbara Kowalczuk, Cyberpsychology, Study for the Innovation Hub, July 2018 Dr Zac Rogers, in Mad Scientist 158, (July 2019), https://madsciblog.tradoc.army.mil/158-in-the-cognitive- 19 war-the-weapon-is-you/ Haselton MG, Nettle D, Andrews PW (2005). “The evolution of cognitive bias.”. In Buss DM (ed.). The Handbook 20 of Evolutionary Psychology Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 43 of 45 Wikipedia lists more than 180 different cognitive biases: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias 21 Lora Pitman (2019)“The Trojan horse in your Head: Cognitive Threats and how to counter them” ODU Digital 22 Commons Robert P. Kozloski, https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2018/02/01/knowing_your 23 – self_is_key_in_cognitive_warfare_112992.html, February 2018 Peter W. Singer, Emerson T. Brooking (2018) LikeWar The Weaponisation of Social Media, HMH Edition page 24 165 Dominique Moïsi (2010) The Geopolitics of Emotion, Edition Anchor. 25 26 Christophe Jacquemart (2012), Fusion Froide Edition Fogg, B.J. (2003). Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Morgan Kauf 27 – mann Publishers. 28 https://mwi.usma.edu/mwi-video-brain-battlefield-future-dr-james-giordano/ Maryanne Wolf, (2007)“Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain” HarperCollins 29 Bernard Stiegler, https://www.observatoireb2vdesmemoires.fr/publications/video-minute-memoire-vers- 30 une-utilisation-raisonnee-du-big-data 2019 31 https://pphr.princeton.edu/2017/04/30/are-video-games-really-mindless/ 32“Never has a medium been so potent for beauty and so vulnerable to creepiness. Virtual reality will test us. It will amplify our character more than other media ever have.” Jaron Lanier, (2018) Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters with Reality and Virtual Reality, Picador Edition Philosopher Thomas Metzinger: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2079601-virtual-reality-could-be-an- 33 ethical-minefield-are-we-ready/ Gayannée Kedia, Lasana Harris, Gert-Jan Lelieveld and Lotte van Dillen, (2017) From the Brain to the Field: 34 The Applications of Social Neuroscience to Economics, Health and Law 35 Pr. Li-Jun Hou, Director of People’s Liberation Army 202nd Hospital, (May 2018), Chinese Journal of Traumatology, 36 For more on the definition of “dual use” in neuro S/T, see Dr. James Giordano’s essay October 2020 National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Emerging and Readily Available 37 Technologies and National Security: A Framework for Addressing Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues. Ibid. 38 39 Giordano J. (2014). Intersections of “big data”, neuroscience and national security: Technical issues and derivative concerns. In: Cabayan H et al. (eds.) A New Information Paradigm? From Genes to “Big Data”, and Instagrams to Persistent Surveillance: Implications for National Security, p. 46-48. Department of Defense; Strategic Multilayer Assessment Group- Joint Staff/J-3/Pentagon Strategic Studies Group. Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions 40 DeFranco JP, DiEuliis D, Bremseth LR, Snow JJ. Giordano J. (2019). Emerging technologies for disruptive ef 41 – fects in non-kinetic engagements. HDIAC Currents 6(2): 49-54. Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 44 of 45 Parag Khanna, Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilisation (New York Random House, 2016) 42 43 Megan Bell, An Approachable Look at the Human Domain and why we should care (2019), https://othjournal.com/ 2019/06/17/an-approachable-look-at-the-human-domain-and-why-we-should-care/ Vladimir Vasilyevich Karyakin, (2012) “The Era of a New Generation of Warriors—Information and Strategic 44 Warriors— Has Arrived,” Moscow, Russia, Nezavisimaya Gazeta Online, in Russian, April 22, 2011, FBIS SOV GILES, SHERR et SEABOYER (2018), Russian Reflexive Control, Royal Military College of Canada, Defence 45 Research and Development Canada. 46 Elsa B. Kania, Prism Vol.8, N.3, 2019 Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, China Brief, (Sep 2019) https://jamestown.org/program/cognitive-domain- 47 operations-the-plas-new-holistic-concept-for-influence-operations/ Ibid. 48 Hai Jin, Li-Jun Hou, Zheng-Guo Wang, (May 2018 )Military Brain Science – How to influence future wars, 49 Chinese Journal of Traumatology 50 August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO ’s 6th Domain, September 2020 51 Maj. Gen. Robert H. Scales, (2006), http://armedforcesjournal.com/clausewitz-and-world-war-iv/ 52 Alan Beyerchen, “Clausewitz, Nonlinearity and the Unpredictability of War,” International Security, 17:3 (Winter, 1992) 53 August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO ’s 6th Domain, September 2020 “Analysis Facing Worldwide Jihadist Violence and Conflicts. What to do?” Article for the Innovation Hub, 54 Nicolas Israël and Sébastien-Yves LAURENT, September 2020 https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/head-strong/201408/psychology-and-less-lethal-military-strategy
55 – 56 Generals Odierno, Amos and Mc Raven, Strategic Landpower, NPS Publication 2014 “Analysis Facing Worldwide Jihadist Violence and Conflicts. What to do?” Article for the Innovation Hub, 57 Nicolas Israël and Sébastien-Yves LAURENT, September 2020 58 August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO 6th Domain of Operations, September 2020 59 Hervé Le Guyader, the Weaponisation of Neurosciences, Innovation Hub Warfighting Study February 2020 Ibid. 60 Ibid. 61 Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 45 of 45
With the debut of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS) in combat, opponents of LAWS have called on States to fast-track the creation of international law that either bans the use of these weapons or mandates meaningful human control over them. If LAWS are used more broadly in future combat, then the latter would ensure a check on the autonomous technology’s limitations, such as rigidness (inability to subjectively analyze situations and modify behavior to changing circumstances), non-explainability (inability to understand the machine’s decision-making processes), and potential biases. In addition to mitigating technology-based limitations, opponents argue that meaningful human control would also preserve the possibility for compassionate behavior and emotion in combat.’
This shift to biologically accurate operations is made possible by moving away from the traditional computational architectures found in deep neural networks, generally known as the von Neumann architecture, and towards a neural network that operates similar to the brain. The latter functions through spikes of encoded information, and in simple terms, the brain-like function of these spiking neural networks (SNNs) operate in a manner analogous to a drum. Stated further:
Drums can respond with different and complex vibration states when they are stimulated, and they can be also understood on computational terms: input (hits), rules (physical laws, physical constraints such as material, tension, etc.), and outputs (vibration, sounds, normal modes). Indeed, the brain has many more similarities with a dynamical system as a drum than with digital computers, which are based on discrete states…. In abstract terms, drums are also “computing” and processing information, but this information processing is a dynamical reaction from external/internal stimuli more than a formal calculation process.
Thus, by mimicking the processes of the brain “the various computational elements are mixed together and the system is dynamic, based on a ‘learning’ process by which the various elements of the system change and readjust depending on the type of stimuli they receive.”
By incorporating brain-like capabilities into technology such as LAWS these cognitive LAWS (CLAWS) could, in turn, employ more human-like discretion in targeting decisions. This is especially salient with regard to the law of armed conflict (LOAC) targeting principles of distinction, proportionality, and military necessity, which all require context-specific judgements. For example, the principle of distinction in Article 48 of Additional Protocol I requires that military operations be directed only at military objectives. Such distinctions are especially imperative in today’s urban battlefields where combatants and civilians exist side-by-side. In these circumstances the challenge lies in amending behavior based on the complex possibilities presented. This requires the decision maker to carefully observe conditions and adjust behavior in relation to unfolding information, a task that entails “on-site” learning and flexibility.
In the case of LAWS, which cannot “learn” dynamically, rigid decision-making capabilities may be problematic for a fully autonomous operation in unpredictable conditions. However, with CLAWS’s on-chip learning they could “interpret the features extracted from images, perceive and analyze multi-faceted situations during an attack, and adapt behavior based on the information gathered.”  This brain-like capability highlights CLAWS’s potential for making the context-specific decisions required by the targeting principles of the LOAC for fully autonomous operations.
Additionally, CLAWS could also be capable of probabilistic computing. This is important because the system’s rationale and decision-making processes could be accessible for review, which would allow for analysis regarding the system’s reliability and bias. Thus, CLAWS have the potential to “conduct complex decision making by managing, planning, anticipating, and adapting to unstructured battlefield environments, all with amplified efficiency and in an environment of reduced bias and increased transparency.”
While the future use of CLAWS seems promising, the neuromorphic technology necessary for CLAWS’ success is still in development. Furthermore, novel issues arising from the use of biologically realistic processors are still being addressed, such as an instability that is characteristic of a sleep-deprived state. Nevertheless, based on the mounting success of neuromorphic computing, it is likely that this technology will eventually be incorporated into specialized products, including weapons of future combat. With the prospective introduction of CLAWS, opponents’ technology-based objections to the use of LAWS may be overcome. However, their concerns regarding the preservation of emotion in combat would remain unresolved because CLAWS would be incapable of feeling emotion.
While the lack of emotion may seem trivial, respect and honor have been integral to combat and central to the warrior’s code of conduct. The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual notes that “the principle of honor draws from warriors’ codes from a variety of cultures and time periods,” and that “[h]onor demands a certain mutual respect between opposing military forces.” Therefore, if respect is a fundamental aspect of war regulations, then ensuring its role in combat is critical. Solutions that account for this element of warfare will be imperative for the successful use of CLAWS.
Ultimately, the future of combat demands innovative proposals, and weapons systems such as CLAWS can provide pertinent solutions to increasingly technical and automatized warfare. By incorporating cognitive processes that mimic biology, not only can CLAWS effect a human-like discretion in targeting decisions, but their technological capabilities can also contribute to more exacting results. This amalgamation of intelligent and functional dexterity may ultimately yield an end result of unmatched performance in future warfare.
Carolyn Sharp is a law student at Brigham Young University. Carolyn focuses her research on the impacts of advanced technology on international law and the law of armed conflict.
 Carolyn Sharp, Status of the Operator: Biologically Inspired Computing as Both a Weapon and an Effector of Laws of War Compliance, 28 Rich. J.L. & Tech., no. 1 (2021).
The views expressed are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the official position of the United States Military Academy, Department of the Army, or Department of Defense.
Articles of War is a forum for professionals to share opinions and cultivate ideas. Articles of War does not screen articles to fit a particular editorial agenda, nor endorse or advocate material that is published.
Electromagnetic and Informational Weapons: The Remote Manipulation of the Human Brain
It should be understood, that Electromagnetic and Informational Weapons are fully operational and could be used by US-NATO in their wars in different parts of the World.
In October 2000, Congressman Denis J. Kucinich introduced in the House of Representatives a bill, which would oblige the American president to engage in negotiations aimed at the ban of space based weapons.
In this bill, the definition of a weapons system included:
“any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)… through the use of land-based, sea- based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations“(15).
As in all legislative acts quoted in this article, the bill pertains to sound, light or electromagnetic stimulation of the human brain.
Psychotronic weapons belong, at least for a layman uninformed of secret military research, in the sphere of science fiction, since so far none of the published scientific experiments has been presented in a meaningful way to World public opinion.
That it is feasible to manipulate human behavior with the use of subliminal, either by sound or visual messages, is now generally known and acknowledged by the scientific community.
This is why in most countries, the use of such technologies, without the consent of the individual concerned, is in theory banned. Needless to say, the use of these technologies is undertaken covertly, without the knowledge or consent of targeted individuals.
Devices using light for the stimulation of the brain constitute another mechanism whereby light flashing under certain frequencies could be used to manipulate the human psychic.
As for the use of sound, a device transmitting a beam of sound waves, which can be heard only by persons at whom the beam of sound waves is targeted, has been reported in several news media. In this case, the beam is formed by a combination of sound and ultrasound waves which causes the targeted person to hear the sound inside his head. Such a procedure could affect the mental balance of the targeted individual as well as convince him that he is, so to speak, mentally ill.
This article examines the development of technologies and knowledge pertaining to the functioning of the human brain and the way new methods of manipulation of the human mind are being developed.
One of the main methods of manipulation is through electromagnetic energy.
In the declassified scientific literature only some 30 experiments have been published supporting this assumption (1),(2). Already in 1974, in the USSR, after successful testing within a military unit in Novosibirsk, the Radioson (Radiosleep) was registered with the Government Committee on Matters of Inventions and Discoveries of the USSR, described as a method of induction of sleep by means of radio waves (3), (4), (5).
In the scientific literature, technical feasibility of inducing sleep in a human being through the use of radio waves is confirmed in a book by an British scientist involved in research on the biological effects of electromagnetism (6). A report by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on nonionizing radiation published in 1991 confirms that:
“many of biological effects observed in animals exposed to ELF fields appear to be associated, either directly or indirectly, with the nervous system…” (2).
Among the published experiments, there are those where pulsed microwaveshave caused the synchronization of isolated neurons with the frequency of pulsing of microwaves. Ffor example, a neuron firing at a frequency of 0.8 Hz was forced in this way to fire the impulses at a frequency of 1 Hz. Moreover, the pulsed microwaves contributed to changing the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain (neurotransmitters are a part of the mechanism which causes the firing of neurons in the brain) and reinforcing or attenuating the effects of drugs delivered into the brain (1).
The experiment where the main brain frequencies registered by EEG were synchronized with the frequency of microwave pulsing (1,2) might explain the function of the Russian installation Radioson. Microwaves pulsed in the sleep frequency would cause the synchronization of the brain’s activity with the sleep frequency and in this way produce sleep.
Pulsing of microwaves in frequency predominating in the brain at an awakened state could, by the same procedure, deny sleep to a human being.
“Microwave pulses appear to couple to the central nervous system and produce stimulation similar to electric stimulation unrelated to heat”.
In a many times replicated experiment, microwaves pulsed in an exact frequency caused the efflux of calcium ions from the nerve cells (1,2). Calcium plays a key role in the firing of neurons and Ross Adey, member of the first scientific team which published this experiment, publicly expressed his conviction that this effect of electromagnetic radiation would interfere with concentration on complex tasks (7).
Robert Becker, who had share in the discovery of the effect of pulsed fields at the healing of broken bones, published the excerpts from the report from Walter Reed Army Institute testing program. In the first part “prompt debilitation effects” should have been tested (8). Were not those effects based on the experiment by Ross Adey and others with calcium efflux?
British scientist John Evans, working in the same field, wrote that both Ross Adey and Robert Becker lost their positions and research grants and called them “free-thinking exiles” (6). In 1975, in the USA, a military experiment was published where pulsed microwaves produced, in the brain of a human subject, an audio perception of numbers from 1 to 10 (9). Again the possibility to convince an individual that it is mentally ill is obvious. The testing program of American Walter Read Army Institute of Research, where the experiment took place, counts with “prompt auditory stimulation by means of auditory effects” and finally aims at “behavior controlled by stimulation” (8).
Let us assume that the words delivered into the brain were transcribed into ultrasound frequencies. Would not then the subject perceive those same words as his own thoughts?
And would this not imply that that his behavior was being controlled in this way through the transmission of ultrasound frequencies? In this regard, the American Air Force 1982 “Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000” states:
“While initial attention should be toward degradation of human performance through thermal loading and electromagnetic field effects, subsequent work should address the possibilities of directing and interrogating mental functioning, using externally applied fields…” (10).
Several scientists have warned that the latest advances in neurophysiology could be used for the manipulation of the human brain.
In June 1995, Michael Persinger, who worked on the American Navy’s project of Non-lethal electromagnetic weapons, published a scientific article where he states:
“the technical capability to influence directly the major portion of the approximately six billion brains of the human species without mediation through classical sensory modalities by generating neural information within a physical medium within which all members of the species are immersed… is now marginally feasible“ (11).
In 1998, the French National Bioethics Committee warned that “neuroscience is being increasingly recognized as posing a potential threat to human rights“ (12). In May 1999 the neuroscientists conference, sponsored by the UN, took place in Tokyo. Its final declaration formally acknowledges that :
“Today we have intellectual, physical and financial resources to master the power of the brain itself, and to develop devices to touch the mind and even control or erase consciousness…We wish to profess our hope that such pursuit of knowledge serves peace and welfare” (13).
On the international political scene, in the last few years, the concept of remote control of the human brain has become a matter of international and intergovernmental negotiation. In January 1999, the European Parliament passed a resolution where it called “for an international convention introducing a global ban on all developments and deployments of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings.“ (14)
Already in 1997, nine states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) addressed the UN, OBSE and the states of the Interparliamentary Union with the proposal to place at the agenda of the General Assembly of the United Nations, the preparation and adoption of an international convention “On Prevention of Informational Wars and Limitation of Circulation of Informational Weapons” (16), (3).
The initiative was originally proposed, in the Russian State Duma, by Vladimir Lopatin (3). V. Lopatin worked, from 1990 to 1995, in sequence, in the standing committees on Security respectively of the Russian Federation, Russian State Duma and of the Interparliamentary Assembly of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), specializing in informational security.(3). The concept of informational weapon or informational war is rather unknown to the world general public. In 1999, V. Lopatin, together with Russian scientist Vladimir Tsygankov, published a book „Psychotronic Weapon and the Security of Russia“ (3). There we find the explanation of this terminology:
“In the report on the research of the American Physical Society for the year 1993 the conclusion is presented that psychophysical weapon systems…can be used… for the construction of a strategic arm of a new type (informational weapon in informational war)…”
Among many references on this subject, we refer to Materials of the Parliament Hearings “Threats and Challenges in the Sphere of Informational Security”, Moscow, July 1996, “Informational Weapon as a Threat to the National Security of the Russian Federation” (analytical report of the Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation), Moscow, 1996 and a material “To Whom Will Belong the Conscientious Weapon in the 21st Century”, Moscow, 1997. (17).
In 2000 V. Lopatin introduced, after two other authors, the third in order bill on the subject of “Informational and Psychological Security of the Russian Federation“. Lopotin’s findings were reviewed by the Russian newspaper Segodnya:
“…Means of informational-psychological influence are capable not only of harming the health of an individual, but, also of causing, according to Lopatin, ‘the blocking of freedom of will of human being on the subliminal level, the loss of the ability of political, cultural and social self identification, the manipulation of societal consciousness, which could lead to the destruction of a sense of collective identify by the Russian people and nation’“ (16).
In the book “Psychotronic Weapons and the Security of Russia”, the authors propose among the basic principles of the Russian concept of defense against the remote control of the human psyche not only the acknowledgement of its existence, but also the fact that the methods of informational and psychotronic war are fully operational (“and are being used without a formal declaration of war”) (18). They also quote the record from the session of the Russian Federation’s Federal Council where V. Lopatin stated that psychotronic weapon can
“cause the blocking of the freedom of will of a human being on a subliminal level” or “instillation into the consciousness or subconsciousness of a human being of information which will trigger a faulty or erroneous perception of reality” (19).
In that regard, they proposed the preparation of national legislation as well as the establishment of legal international norms “aimed at the defense of human psyche against subliminal, destructive and informational manipulations” (20).
Moreover, they also propose the declassification of all analytical studies and research on the various technologies. They warned that, because this research has remained classified and removed from the public eye, it has allowed the arms race to proceed unabated. It has thereby contributed to increasing the possibility of psychotronic war.
Among the possible sources of remote influence on human psyche, the authors list the “generators of physical fields“ of “known as well as unknown nature” (21). In 1999 the STOA (Scientific and Technological Options Assessment), part of the Directorate General for Research of the European Parliament published the report on Crowd Control Technologies, ordered by them with the OMEGA foundation in Manchester (UK) (22, http://www.europarl.eu.int/stoa/publi/pdf/99-14-01-a_en.pdf ).
One of four major subjects of the study pertained to the so-called “Second Generation“ or “non lethal” technologies:
“This report evaluates the second generation of ‘non-lethal’ weapons which are emerging from national military and nuclear weapons laboratories in the United States as part of the Clinton Administration’s ‘non-lethal’ warfare doctrine now adopted in turn by NATO. These devices include weapons using… directed energy beam,…radio frequency, laser and acoustic mechanisms to incapacitate human targets” (23) The report states that „the most controversial ‚non-lethal‘ crowd control … technology proposed by the U.S., are so called Radio Frequency or Directed Energy Weapons that can allegedly manipulate human behavior… the greatest concern is with systems which can directly interact with the human nervous system“ (24). The report also states that „perhaps the most powerful developments remain shrouded in secrecy“ (25).
The unavailability of official documents confirming the existence of this technology may be the reason why the OMEGA report is referencing, with respect to mind control technology, the internet publication of the author of this article (26 http://www.europarl.eu.int/stoa/publi/pdf/99-14-01-a_en.pdf ).
Similarly, the internet publication of the director of the American Human Rights and Anti-mind Control Organization (CAHRA), Cheryl Welsh, is referenced by the joint initiative of the Quaker United Nations Office, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, and Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies, with respect to non-lethal weapons (27).
On September 25th, 2000, the Committee on Security of the Russian State Duma discussed the addendum to the article 6 of the Federal law On Weapons. In the resolution we read:
“The achievements of contemporary science… allow for creation of measured methods of secret, remote influencing on the psyches and physiology of a person or a group of people“ (28). The committee recommended that the addendum be approved. The addendum to the article 6 of the Russian Federation law “On Weapons“ was approved on July 26, 2001. It states:
“within the territory of the Russian Federation is prohibited the circulation of weapons and other objects… the effects of the operation of which are based on the use of electromagnetic, light, thermal, infra-sonic or ultra-sonic radiations…“ (29).
In this way, the Russian government made a first step to stand up to its dedication to the ban of mind control technology.
In the Doctrine of Informational Security of the Russian Federation, signed by president Putin in September 2000, among the dangers threatening the informational security of Russian Federation, is listed
“the threat to the constitutional rights and freedoms of people and citizens in the sphere of spiritual life… individual, group and societal consciousness“ and “illegal use of special means affecting individual, group and societal consciousness” (30). Among the major directions of the international cooperation toward the guaranteeing of the informational security is listed „the ban of production, dissemination and use of ‘informational weapon‘ “ (31).
The foregoing statement should be interpreted as the continuing Russian commitment to the international ban of the means of remote influencing of the activity of the human brain.
Similarly, in the above mentioned report, published by the STOA, the originally proposed version of the resolution of the European Parliament calls for:
“an international convention for a global ban on all research and development… which seeks to apply knowledge of the chemical, electrical, sound vibration or other functioning of the human brain to the development of weapons which might enable the manipulation of human beings, including a ban of any actual or possible deployment of such systems.“(32)
Here the term “actual” might easily mean that such weapons are already deployed.
Among the countries with the most advanced military technologies is the USA which did not present any international initiative demanding the ban of technologies enabling the remote control of human mind. (The original version of the bill by Denis J. Kucinich was changed.)
All the same, according to the study published by STOA, the US is the major promoter of the use of those weapons. Non lethal technology was included into NATO military doctrine due to their effort: “At the initiative of the USA, within the framework of NATO, a special group was formed, for the perspective use of devices of non-lethal effects” states the record from the session of the Committee on Security of the Russian State Duma (28).
The report published by STOA states: “In October 1999 NATO announced a new policy on non-lethal weapons and their place in allied arsenals” (33). “In 1996 non-lethal tools identified by the U.S. Army included… directed energy systems” and “radio frequency weapons” (34) – those weapons, as was suggested in the STOA report as well, are being associated with the effects on the human nervous system.
According to the Russian government informational agency FAPSI, in the last 15 years,U.S. expenditures on the development and acquisition of the means of informational war has increased fourfold, and at present they occupy the first place among all military programs (17),(3).
Though there are possible uses of informational war, which do not imply mind control, the US Administration has been unwilling to engage in negotiations on the ban on all forms of manipulation of the human brain. This unwillingness might indeed suggest that the US administration intends to use mind control technologies both within the US as well as internationally as an instrument of warfare.
One clear consequence of the continuation of the apparent politics of secrecy surrounding technologies enabling remote control of the human brain is that the governments, who own such technologies, could use them without having to consult public opinion. Needless to say, any meaningful democracy in today’s world could be disrupted, through secret and covert operations. It is not inconceivable that in the future, entire population groups subjected to mind control technologies, could be living in a “fake democracy” where their own government or a foreign power could broadly shape their political opinions by means of mind control technologies.
Mojmir Babacek is the founder of the International Movement for the Ban of the Manipulation of the Human Nervous System by Technical Means, He is the author of numerous articles on the issue of mind manipulation.
1) Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, 1996, CRC Press Inc., 0-8493-0641-8/96, – pg. 117, 119, 474- 485, 542-551, 565 at the top and third and last paragraph
2) World Health Organization report on non-ionizing radiation from 1991, pg. 143 and 207-208
3) V. Lopatin, V Cygankov: „Psichotronnoje oružie i bezopasnost Rossii“, SINTEG, Russian Federation, Moscow, ISBN 5-89638-006-2-A5-2000-30, list of the publications of the publishing house you will find at the addresshttp://www.sinteg.ru/cataloghead.htm
4) G. Gurtovoj, I. Vinokurov: „Psychotronnaja vojna, ot mytov k realijam“, Russsian Federation, Moscow, „Mysteries“, 1993, ISBN 5-86422-098-1
5) With greatest likelihood as well the Russian daily TRUD, which has organized the search for the documents, Moscow, between August 1991 and end of 1992 6) John Evans: Mind, Body and Electromagnetism, the Burlington Press, Cambridge, 1992, ISBN 1874498008, str.139
7) Robert Becker: “Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life”, William Morrow and comp., New York, 1985, pg. 287
8) Robert Becker: “Cross Currents, teh Startling Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation on your Health”, 1991, Bloomsburry Publishing, London, Great Brittain, ISBN 0- 7475-0761-9, pg. 304, Robert Becker refers to Bioelectromagnetics Society Newsletter, January and February 1989
9) Don R. Justesen, 1975, Microwaves and Behavior, American Psychologist, March 1975, pg. 391 – 401
10) Dr. Nick Begich and Jeane Maning: “Angels Don’t Play This HAARP, Advances in Tesla Technology”, Earthpulse Press, 1995, ISBN 0-9648812–0-9, pg. 169
11) M. A. Persinger: „On the Possibility of Directly Lacessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorythms“, Perception and Motor Skills, June1995,, sv. 80, str. 791-799
12) Nature, vol.391, 22.1.1998,str.316, „Advances in Neurosciences May Threaten Human Rights“
13) Internet reference at the site of the United Nations University and Institute of Advanced Studies in Tokyo does not work any more, to verify the information it is necessary to find the document from the 1999 UN sponsored conference of neuroscientists in Tokyo, you may inquire at the address email@example.com 14)http://www.europarl.eu.int/home/default_en.htm?redirected=1 . click at Plenary sessions, scroll down to Reports by A4 number –click, choose 1999 and fill in 005 to A4 or search for Resolution on the environment, security and foreign policy from January 28, 1999
28) Document sent by Moscow Committee of Ecology of Dwellings. Telephone: Russian Federation, Zelenograd, 531-6411, Emilia Tschirkova, directrice
29) Search www.rambler.ru , there “poisk” (search) and search for “gosudarstvennaja duma” (State Duma) (it is necessary to type in Russian alphabet), at the page which appears choose “informacionnyj kanal gosudarstvennoj dumy” (Informational Channel of the Russian State Duma), there “federalnyje zakony podpisanyje prezidentom RF” (Federal laws signed by president of the Russian Federation), choose year 2001 and search 26 ijulja, è. N 103-F3 (July 26, 2001, number N 103- F3) , “O vnesenii dopolnenija v statju 6 federalnogo zakona ob oružii” (addendum to the article 6 of the Federal law on weapons)
30) Search www.rambler.ru and then (type in Russian alphabet) “gosudarstvennaja duma”, next “informacionnyj kanal gosudarstvennoj dumy” (informational channel of the State Duma), next search by use of “poisk” (search) Doktrina informacionnoj bezopasnosti Rossii” “Doctrine of the Informational Security of the Russian Federation) there see pg. 3 “Vidy informacionnych ugroz bezopasnosti Rossijskkoj federacii” (Types of Threats to the Informational Security of the Russian Federation)
31) See ref. 30, pg. 19, “Mìždunarodnoje sotrudnièestvo Rossijskoj Federacii v oblasti obespeèenija informacionnoj bezopasnoti” (International Cooperation of the Russian Federation in Assuring the Informational Security”
Humans Will Have Cloud-Connected Hybrid Brains by 2030, Ray Kurzweil Says
So, you think you’ve seen it all? You haven’t seen anything yet. By the year 2030, advancements will excel anything we’ve seen before concerning human intelligence. In fact, predictions offer glimpses of something truly amazing – the development of a human hybrid, a mind that thinks in artificial intelligence.
Ray Kurzweil, director of engineering at Google, spoke openly about this idea at the Exponential Finance Conference in New York. He predicts that humans will have hybrid brains able to connect to the cloud, just as with computers. In this cloud, there will be thousands of computers which will update human intelligence. The larger the cloud, the more complicated the thinking. This will all be connected using DNA strands called Nanobots. Sounds like a Sci-Fi movie, doesn’t it?
“Our hybrid thinking will be a combination of biological and non-biological thought processes.”
By the end of 2030, our thinking should be almost entirely non-biological and able to function much like an external hard drive – having the ability to backup information as with technology. It seems we keep pushing further the ability of the human mind.
Kurzweil believes one of the true characteristics of the being human is the ability to continually surpass knowledge.
“We will always transcend our limitations-it’s human nature.” says Kurzweil.
Kurzweil wasn’t 100% accurate in his future predictions, but he was close enough. In 1990, he predicted several things for the year 2009, including portable computers and eyeglasses with the built-in computer screen. He didn’t, however, hit the nail on the head with self-driven cars. It was much later, this year, to be exact, that the idea touched the edge of mainstream technology. He was 86% accurate in his predictions, which is astonishing in itself.
No worries, there will probably not be a massive takeover by artificial intelligence. We have accounted for this long ago in other theories. For instance, fire provides a way to cook, but we have managed somehow to keep from burning everything down. The same rules apply here. We have taken the necessary precautions to safeguard ourselves from these horrors.
However, we must still play it safe. Kurzweil reminds us:
“Technology is a double-edged sword. It has its promise and its peril.”
The real-life Matrix: MIT researchers reveal interface that can allow a computer to plug into the brain
System could deliver optical signals and drugs directly into the brain
Could lead to devices for treatment of conditions such as Parkinson’s
It has been the holy grail of science fiction – an interface that allows us to plug our brain into a computer.
Now, researchers at MIT have revealed new fibres less than a width of a hair that could make it a reality.
They say their system that could deliver optical signals and drugs directly into the brain, along with electrical readouts to continuously monitor the effects of the various inputs.
Christina Tringides, a senior at MIT and member of the research team, holds a sample of the multifunction fiber that could deliver optical signals and drugs directly into the brain, along with electrical readouts to continuously monitor the effects of the various inputs.
HOW IT WORKS
The new fibers are made of polymers that closely resemble the characteristics of neural tissues.
The multifunction fiber that could deliver optical signals and drugs directly into the brain, along with electrical readouts to continuously monitor the effects of the various inputs.
Combining the different channels could enable precision mapping of neural activity, and ultimately treatment of neurological disorders, that would not be possible with single-function neural probes.
‘We’re building neural interfaces that will interact with tissues in a more organic way than devices that have been used previously,’ said MIT’s Polina Anikeeva, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering.
The human brain’s complexity makes it extremely challenging to study not only because of its sheer size, but also because of the variety of signaling methods it uses simultaneously.
Conventional neural probes are designed to record a single type of signaling, limiting the information that can be derived from the brain at any point in time.
Now researchers at MIT may have found a way to change that.
By producing complex fibers that could be less than the width of a hair, they have created a system that could deliver optical signals and drugs directly into the brain, along with simultaneous electrical readout to continuously monitor the effects of the various inputs.
The newC technology is described in a paper in the journal Nature Biotechnology.
The new fibers are made of polymers that closely resemble the characteristics of neural tissues, Anikeeva says, allowing them to stay in the body much longer without harming the delicate tissues around them.
To do that, her team made use of novel fiber-fabrication technology pioneered by MIT professor of materials science Yoel Fink and his team, for use in photonics and other applications.
The result, Anikeeva explains, is the fabrication of polymer fibers ‘that are soft and flexible and look more like natural nerves.’
Devices currently used for neural recording and stimulation, she says, are made of metals, semiconductors, and glass, and can damage nearby tissues during ordinary movement.
‘It’s a big problem in neural prosthetics,’ Anikeeva says.
HOW IT WORKS
The new fibers are made of polymers that closely resemble the characteristics of neural tissues.
The multifunction fiber that could deliver optical signals and drugs directly into the brain, along with electrical readouts to continuously monitor the effects of the various inputs.
Combining the different channels could enable precision mapping of neural activity, and ultimately treatment of neurological disorders, that would not be possible with single-function neural probes.
‘We’re building neural interfaces that will interact…
‘They are so stiff, so sharp — when you take a step and the brain moves with respect to the device, you end up scrambling the tissue.’
The key to the technology is making a larger-scale version, called a preform, of the desired arrangement of channels within the fiber: optical waveguides to carry light, hollow tubes to carry drugs, and conductive electrodes to carry electrical signals.
These polymer templates, which can have dimensions on the scale of inches, are then heated until they become soft, and drawn into a thin fiber, while retaining the exact arrangement of features within them.
A single draw of the fiber reduces the cross-section of the material 200-fold, and the process can be repeated, making the fibers thinner each time and approaching nanometer scale.
During this process, Anikeeva says, ‘Features that used to be inches across are now microns.’
Combining the different channels in a single fiber, she adds, could enable precision mapping of neural activity, and ultimately treatment of neurological disorders, that would not be possible with single-function neural probes.
For example, light could be transmitted through the optical channels to enable optogenetic neural stimulation, the effects of which could then be monitored with embedded electrodes.
Combining the different channels in a single fiber, she adds, could enable precision mapping of neural activity, and ultimately treatment of neurological disorders, that would not be possible with single-function neural probes.
At the same time, one or more drugs could be injected into the brain through the hollow channels, while electrical signals in the neurons are recorded to determine, in real time, exactly what effect the drugs are having.
MIT researchers discuss their novel implantable device that can deliver optical signals and drugs to the brain, without harming the brain tissue.
The system can be tailored for a specific research or therapeutic application by creating the exact combination of channels needed for that task. ‘You can have a really broad palette of devices,’ Anikeeva says.
While a single preform a few inches long can produce hundreds of feet of fiber, the materials must be carefully selected so they all soften at the same temperature.
The fibers could ultimately be used for precision mapping of the responses of different regions of the brain or spinal cord, Anikeeva says, and ultimately may also lead to long-lasting devices for treatment of conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.
John Rogers, a professor of materials science and engineering and of chemistry at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who was not involved in this research, says, ‘These authors describe a fascinating, diverse collection of multifunctional fibers, tailored for insertion into the brain where they can stimulate and record neural behaviors through electrical, optical, and fluidic means.
The results significantly expand the toolkit of techniques that will be essential to our development of a basic understanding of brain function.’
Update on the emergence of DNA nanobots and nan ocomputers.
Nicholas WestThe Human Body Version 2.0 project features none other than arch-Transhumanist Ray Kurzweil as its main proponent. The goals have been openly stated for some time:
In the coming decades, a radical upgrading of our body’s physical and mental systems, already underway, will use nanobots to augment and ultimately replace our organs. We already know how to prevent most degenerative disease through nutrition and supplementation; this will be a bridge to the emerging biotechnology revolution, which in turn will be a bridge to the nanotechnology revolution. By 2030, reverse-engineering of the human brain will have been completed and nonbiological intelligence will merge with our biological brains.
In fact, the reverse engineering of the human brain has already been announced to be well under way via new microchips and accompanying software. And, while full nanobot rewiring of the brain is not expected before 2020, Phys.org has reported that our DNA has been successfully targeted by nanobots “for drug therapy or destruction.”
Taking this even one step further, Ray Kurzweil said in a new interview with The Wall Street Journal (see below) that our extension into non-biological realms will include nanobot computers that will enter our brain and connect us to Cloud computing.
From science fiction horror, directly to the human body, the nanobots are no longer speculation. Also unlike science fiction, they won’t arrive via immediate worldwide takeover — they are already here, and will be introduced incrementally, as Kurzweil has previously stated:
It will be an incremental process, one already well under way. Although version 2.0 is a grand project, ultimately resulting in the radical upgrading of all our physical and mental systems, we will implement it one benign step at a time. Based on our current knowledge, we can already touch and feel the means for accomplishing each aspect of this vision. (emphasis added)
Researchers from Columbia University have developed a fleet of molecular nanorobots that can deliver drugs to specific cells and also identify certain genetic markers by using fluorescent labeling. After such identification, a chain reaction can be initiated:
On cells where all three components are attached, a robot is functional and a fourth component (labeled 0 below) initiates a chain reaction among the DNA strands. Each component swaps a strand of DNA with another, until the end of the swap, when the last antibody obtains a strand of DNA that is fluorescently labeled.
At the end of the chain reaction—which takes less than 15 minutes in a sample of human blood—only cells with the three surface proteins are labeled with the fluorescent marker.
Naturally, this type of targeted therapeutic approach could prove beneficial, as the researchers highlight — especially for cancer treatment which sweeps up healthy cells along with malignant ones, very often doing more harm than good (if one were to choose the establishment medical route).
This is always how new technologies are sold to the public, however, and it would be naive not to consider the darker applications as well.
Direct brain modification already has been packaged as “neuroengineering.” A Wired article from early 2009 highlighted that direct brain manipulation via fiber optics is a bit messy, but once installed “it could make someone happy with the press of a button.” Nanobots take the process to an automated level, rewiring the brain molecule by molecule. Worse, these mini droids can autonomously self-replicate, forcing one to wonder how this genie would ever be put back in the bottle once unleashed.
Here is one scenario offered by Kurzweil for how these nanobots could enter our bodies:
A significant benefit of nanobot technology is that unlike mere drugs and nutritional supplements, nanobots have a measure of intelligence. They can keep track of their own inventories, and intelligently slip in and out of our bodies in clever ways. One scenario is that we would wear a special “nutrient garment” such as a belt or undershirt. This garment would be loaded with nutrient bearing nanobots, which would make their way in and out of our bodies through the skin or other body cavities. (emphasis added)
That might seem to offer a level of participatory choice — to wear or not to wear the garment — but Kurzweil reveals that the nanobots will eventually be everywhere:
Ultimately we won’t need to bother with special garments or explicit nutritional resources. Just as computation will eventually be ubiquitous and available everywhere, so too will basic metabolic nanobot resources be embedded everywhere in our environment.
In a recent interview with The Wall Street Journal, Kurzweil highlights why Google has taken an interest in nanotechnology and the possibilities he sees for humans as they increasingly become non-biological and form direct connections with computers, augmenting and/or supplanting our natural processes as we head into the era of cyborgs and beyond:
And of course once our neocortex is uploaded to the Cloud, it positions Google perfectly for searching our every thought and pre-thought. While this might sound like an impossible amount of information to upload, let alone interconnect and search, it is being announced that researchers have designed the first nanocomputer that can push beyond the concept of Moore’s Law, which imposes a theoretical limitation on the expansion of computer processing power.
The team designed and assembled, from the bottom up, a functioning, ultra-tiny control computer that is the densest nanoelectronic system ever built.
The ultra-small, ultra-low-power control processor—termed a nanoelectronic finite-state machine or “nanoFSM”—is smaller than a human nerve cell.
In their recent collaboration they combined several tiles on a single chip to produce a first-of-its-kind complex, programmable nanocomputer. (Source)
It shouldn’t be seen as coincidence that these developments are happening simultaneously. What appears on the surface to be discoveries in entirely different fields are coalescing rapidly as we approach the theoretical date of The Singularity – the full merger of human and machine – estimated to occur between 2029-2045.
Despite the benign language of futurists, we know that a concerted effort is already underway to manage and predict human behavior for a whole range of potentially anti-human applications. As our free will is also targeted like the cells of our body — for drug therapy or elimination — ethical concerns must be voiced loud and clear. Scientists seem content with opening Pandora’s Box, then worrying about negative consequences later … and that is only if we assume that their intentions are benign from the beginning. One should take time to examine the history of military experimentation on human populations to see all of this through a very different lens.
At the very least, instead of the fully realized vision of Human Body 2.0, this might be Big Pharma 2.0 — a new phase where conventional drugs are incrementally replaced by nanodrugs and nano-fleet delivery systems. Coupled with applications that directly enter our brain to connect us to the computer matrix, we are rapidly entering an entirely new human paradigm.
The funding is already there, and a massive amount of money is waiting to be made by companies like Google. Here again, for those who might only see the bright side to this technology, we ought to question who is really in control of it.
Remember those slender gleaming spikes Keanu Reeves and pals jacked into the backs of their noggins to go virtual-reality tripping in The Matrix? That’s certainly an image: prong-to-brain networking, your neurons serviced by skewer.
But then the movies — what can you do? The future of brain-machine interfaces may be less, umm, visible if cutting-edge research by scientists at the University of California Berkeley proves viable.
One of the biggest challenges for brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is how to create one you could use indefinitely (like for a lifetime). Even in The Matrix, connecting to the cloud seems awfully inconvenient: sit back in a chair, stab yourself in the skull. Existing real-world BMI systems are clumsier still. As KurzweilAI notes: “Current BMI systems are also limited to several hundred implantable recording sites, they generate tissue responses around the implanted electrodes that degrade recording performance over time, and are limited to months to a few years.”
What if, instead, we built entire armies of tiny dust-sized sensor nodes that could be implanted in the brain (though not autonomously — this isn’t colonize-your-brain-stem time yet) to facilitate communication of whatever sort, in this case keeping high-res tabs on neural signals and relaying data back to aggregation devices via ultrasound?
Dongjin Seo, Jose M. Carmena, Jan M. Rabaey, Elad Alon, Michel M. Maharbiz / arXiv.org
Here’s how it might work: First you pop through the skull and the brain’s dura (the membrane surrounding the brain), dipping into the brain’s neural sea itself, roughly two millimeters down, where you position thousands of low-powered CMOS chips (the “neural dust,” each as tiny as millionths of a meter) to begin capturing neural signals using electrodes and piezoelectric sensors, which convert the data to ultrasonic signals. Those signals are then picked up by a sub-dural transceiver (sitting just above the “dust” chips and simultaneously powering them ultrasonically), which relays the data to an external transceiver resting just outside the skull (ASIC, memory, battery, long-range transmitter), which in turn communicates wirelessly with whatever computing device.
Like most futurist notions, this one hasn’t been tested yet — it’s just a formal proposal — but it’s another fascinating glimpse into where we might be headed, bypassing clumsy literal BMI head-jacks for micro-scale interfaces that would link us, wire-free, to future galaxies of virtual information.
Google’s chief engineer: People will soon upload their entire brains to computers
Published time: June 20, 2013 16:02
Ray Kurzweil (AFP Photo / Gabriel Bouys)
There are around 377 million results on Google.com for the query “Can I live forever?” Ask that question to company’s top engineer, though, and you’re likely to hear an answer that’s much more concise.
Simply put, Google’s Ray Kurzweil says immortality is only a few years away. Digital immortality, at least.
Kurzweil, 64, was only brought on to Google late last year, but that hasn’t stopped him from making headlines already. During a conference in New York City last week, the company’s director of engineering said that the growth of biotechnology is so quickly paced that that he predicts our lives will be drastically different in just a few decades.
According to Kurzweil, humans will soon be able to upload their entire brains onto computers. After then, other advancements won’t be too far behind.
“The life expectancy was 20, 1,000 years ago,” Kurzweil said over the weekend at the Global Future 2045 World Congress in New York City, CNBC’s Cadie Thompson reported. “We doubled it in 200 years. This will go into high gear within 10 and 20 years from now, probably less than 15, we will be reaching that tipping point where we add more time than has gone by because of scientific progress.”
“Somewhere between 10 and 20 years, there is going to be tremendous transformation of health and medicine,” he said.
In his 2005 book “The Singularity Is Near,” Kurzweil predicted that ongoing achievements in biotechnology would mean that by the middle of the century, “humans will develop the means to instantly create new portions of ourselves, either biological or nonbiologicial,” so that people can have “a biological body at one time and not at another, then have it again, then change it.” He also said there will soon be “software-based humans” who will “live out on the Web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including holographically projected bodies, foglet-projected bodies and physical bodies comprising nanobot swarms.”
Those nanobot swarms might still be a bit away, but given the vast capabilities already achieved since the publication of his book, Kurzweil said in New York last week that more and more of the human body will soon be synced up to computers, both for backing up our thoughts and to help stay in good health.
“There’s already fantastic therapies to overcome heart disease, cancer and every other neurological disease based on this idea of reprogramming the software,” Kurzweil at the conference. “These are all examples of treating biology as software. …These technologies will be a 1,000 times more powerful than they were a decade ago. …These will be 1,000 times more powerful by the end of the decade. And a million times more powerful in 20 years.”
In “The Singularity Is Near,” Kurzweil acknowledged that Moore’s Law of Computer suggests that the power of computer doubles, on average, every two years. At that rate, he wrote, “We’re going to become increasingly non-biological to the point where the non-biological part dominates and the biological part is not important anymore.”
“Based on conservative estimates of the amount of computation you need to functionally simulate a human brain, we’ll be able to expand the scope of our intelligence a billion-fold,” The Daily Mail quoted Kurzweil.
Kurzweil joined Google in December 2012 and is a 1999 winner of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation. In the 1970s, Kurzweil was responsible for creating the first commercial text-to-speech synthesizer.
NSA mind control and psyops
The following was sent to me by Will Filer . It offers a new explanation for government mind control. Will has stated to me that he is a former consultant to the U.S. National Security Agency and asked me to post this information immediately. He also believes he is in immediate danger because of this information. This was possible Date: 20 Aug 1999 08:50:21 GMT
Subliminal Implanted Posthypnotic Suggestions and Scripts Using Acoustically Delivered and Phonetically Accelerated Posthypnotic Commands without Somnambulistic Preparation in the Subject for Intelligence and Counterintelligence Applications by the United States National Security Agency.
1. INTRODUCTION: 1. The following information is an overview of one area of NSA Intelligence Technology and Applications. A Technology Title, Applications, Technology Description, case history summaries and the NSA’s Behavioral Modification Procedure Outline documented for the non-technical person.
2. TECHNOLOGY TITLE: 1. Subliminal Implanted Posthypnotic Suggestions and Scripts Using Acoustically Delivered and Phonetically Accelerated Posthypnotic Commands without Somnambulistic Preparation in the Subject for Intelligence and Counterintelligence Applications by the United States National Security Agency. “Computer Simulated Subconscious Speech Language”.
3. APPLICATIONS: 1. Intelligence: 1. Used on foreign and domestic diplomats, spies, and citizens to gather intelligence, steal advanced technology for US Defense applications. Surveys of citizen’s opinions to government events and propaganda. Heavy survey use during times of war, economic strife and political elections. War against drugs. Used to identify investments that have high yield to support clandestine operations. Used to direct field agents without the agents having to carry communications hardware and encryption devices.
2. Counterintelligence: 1. Used on foreign and domestic diplomats, spies, and citizens to identify intelligence operations; scope, participants, communication methods, and weaknesses in individuals, systems, equipment, or signals that can be exploited. Additional applications include misinformation dissemination, confusing and confounding leaders during critical decision moments, distorting significance of various facts to sway decisions and actions in US favor, behavioral modification of foreign spies to betray their loyalties, self initiated executions (suicides).
3. Behavior Modification and Accelerated Resocialization: 1. This technology is used to develop and control spies, political candidates, and other public figures through psychological intimidation, fear and extortion. 2. The NSA uses this technology to resocialize (brainwash) the US civilian voting population into “Giving their lives to Christ” (giving up their personal will and civil rights to the NSA). Each subject is required to maintain a “Personal Relationship with Jesus Christ” (following the precepts of the Bible and doing what is ordered by the NSA). The technology is also used to monitor and optimize NSA employee performance and loyalty.
4. DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS:
1. Age Regression: The act of bringing back past memories in a subject though the use of hypnosis. The memories can be very vivid and real in the mind of the subject.
2. Hypnoamnesia: Temporary loss of memory due to a posthypnotic suggestion.
3. NSA: United States National Security Agency, Fort Mead, Maryland.
4. ODO: On-Duty Officer, or officer-on-duty.
5. Posthypnotic Command: Same as Posthypnotic Suggestion. This term “Command” is more commonly used when the hypnosis is forcibly given to the subject and when the subject’s will has been broken down though the use of REM Sleep Deprivation and Suggestibility Index increasing drugs like CNS and Cardiovascular Stimulants. The exposure to extreme REM deprivation and select chemical stimulants cause the subject to have no ability to resist the “Suggestion” any longer thereby making it a “Command”.
6. Posthypnotic Suggestion: A subconscious suggestion or command resident and potentially active in the subject following a hypnotic trance or period of direct access to the subconscious mind.
7. Posthypnotic Suggestibility Index: An index or rating of a subject’s susceptibility and sensitivity to hypnosis.
8. REM DEP: Abbreviation for REM Sleep Deprivation or REM Deprivation. A subject deprived from REM Sleep has multiple symptoms i.e. reduced protein synthesis, black circles around eyes, loss of short term memory, confusion, impulsiveness, anger, frustration, diminished self-esteem, increased suggestibility, reduced productivity, apathy, and depression. Long term REM Deprivation results in death.
9. Script: A carefully constructed series of words arranged in the form of a posthypnotic suggestion. The script will generally consist of four separate parts;
(1) an identifier (subject’s name, description, or other identifying factor), (2) trigger activation condition or conditions (when, what or how the suggestion will trigger), (3) the content (what the trigger will precipitate in the perception of the subject), (4) and a duration (when or under what conditions will it stop or finish). Additional reinforcing scripts are usually added to “strengthen” or reinforce the central posthypnotic command.
10. Somnambulatory State: An abnormal condition of sleep in which motor acts (like walking, running) are performed. This state is typically achieved and a prerequisite to traditional hypnosis.
11. Subliminal Implant: A posthypnotic suggestion successfully delivered to the subject’s subconscious mind.
12. Transceivers (NSA): Nearly microscopic electronic surveillance devices that collect and transmit encrypted audio, color video, and location coordinates collected at the subject site to NSA Satellites that in turn forward it to NSA central intelligence operations. The devices also receive encrypted audio scripts from NSA central intelligence operations through the satellites and deliver it to the subject’s site in the form of a subliminal posthypnotic suggestion. These devices are approximately the size of the head of a straight pin and can be concealed in houses, offices, automobiles, planes, and street corners.
5. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW: 1. In addition to the ability to see and hear what is going on inside people’s homes, vehicles, and businesses through the use of nearly microscopic digital surveillance technology, the NSA is able to interrogate and influence a person subconsciously without the knowledge or consent of the subject.
2. Thought Labels (Response Labels): 1. Have you ever watched a baseball game? Did you see the catcher and pitcher communicate using a series of itches, baseball cap rearrangement, and clothing tugs? An elaboration of this communication technique is used by the NSA to detect a fleeting thought in a subject or “read minds” so to speak.
2. Lets discuss how an itch, clothing tug or even an innocent sneeze can be used to label a thought. For simplicity, we will call itches, clothing tugs, sneezes, coughs, or involuntary muscle spasms that are performed during subconscious interrogation “thought labels”.
3. Post-Hypnotic Delivery Method: 1. The NSA combines hypnosis and thought labels to interrogate people without the subject being aware of it. “How can hypnosis be used?” you might ask. The subconscious mind operates at a speed of about 1200 to 1400 words per minute. This is many times faster than the conscious mind that operates at 250 to 450 WPM (words per minute). The posthypnotic script can be spoken at fast conversational speed approximately 250 WPM and a recorder or a computer speeds up the message up to approximately 1200 to 1400 WPM. Remember what happens when you play a 33 rpm record at 78 rpm? The resulting voice sound like the old American cartoon characters the Chipmunks. This is only slightly past doubling (2X) the delivery speed. At speeds as high as 1400 WPM, the voices would sound like a high pitched chattering whine. Remember when the words “Drink Coca Cola” were written on one frame of a movie in a theatre back in the 1960s? The frame rate in movies is played at 30 frames/second. At 1/30th of a second the conscious mind could not recognize the message but the subconscious mind could read it clearly. The audience increased their Coca-Cola consumption by 65% that night resulting in the Federal Government prohibiting subliminal advertising. The following probable reasons for not achieving a higher percentage of subliminal delivery effectiveness (> 65%) are described as follows. In that 1/30th of a second some people were blinking, some people were looking around the theatre, looking at spouses, children, candy, popcorn, etc. or they had sufficiently poor eyesight that they could watch the movie but could not distinguish the small writing clearly.
2. In the early years of this technology, the NSA originally recorded a spoken posthypnotic suggestion message into a tape deck and sped it up by speeding up the tape. This process was labor intensive, required each officer to have excellent diction and mastery of the language and dialect required, and was of poor quality due to background noise and the delay in timing during recording and processing. It also required extensive training to assure that each officer spoke at the same rate of speed so that the resulting “sped-up” script was delivered at the correct speed. Now computers are used to append digitized samples of optimized, ideal phonemes together to form words and the words are sped-up to the correct delivery speed.
Where dialects are present, a different set of base phonemes is used.
3. Currently, to optimize efficiency and accommodate the variety of languages on the planet, phonetic elements from each language and distinct dialect are sampled, digitally edited to optimize them, and appended during delivery to form words and words arranged to make sentences in the from of scripts that resemble hypnotic suggestions.
The empty space between words is minimized and pitch rise is compressed and filtered. Repetitive sine waves are also removed from the phonetic element’s acoustic wave train thus reducing the actual number of sine waves making up a word by 50% or more. This reduces the actual length of the time it takes the phoneme to be delivered prior to accelerating (speeding-up) the delivery (like fast forward). This helps the message to be played at higher speeds and reduces the subject’s ability to recognize it as accelerated speech. The technique of using optimized digitally sampled and edited phonemes appended together to for words and then sentences structured as hypnotic suggestions can be termed “computer simulated subconscious speech language”.
4. The subconscious mind is also very sensitive. It can hear things that the conscious mind ignores. If you have watched television, you have probably noticed that there are many “subliminal tapes” on the market to program your subconscious mind. These tapes have their “messages” recorded/hidden in the sounds of ocean waves, music, or other sounds but they are not sped-up to subconscious delivery speeds and are therefore not very effective. The subconscious mind can hear and discern the message even when there is background noise like waves, cars, planes, or even when someone else is speaking to you in normal conversation. Your conscious mind won’t hear anything unless it is very quite in the house. If you are very attentive you may hear what sounds like a low-pitched tape on fast forward, and played at low volume. This is the sound of the NSA’s high-speed audio subliminal message.
5. This modification of the phonetic elements, played at low volume, combined with the environmental background noise makes it very difficult for a subject to record the NSA message. Even if the subject were to effectively record the message, it is very difficult to filter (separate) the NSA’s message from background noise. Then, reconstructing the missing sine waves from the acoustic wave train and slowing the message down to discern the actual content of the “posthypnotic” script with the conscious mind would be nearly impossible for the average citizen. To briefly summarize, the subject would have no chance in analyzing a NSA message without the following items:
1. Professional state-of-the-art technology recording equipment. 2. Digital acoustic wave editing equipment. 3. Advanced engineering knowledge of acoustic wave science. 4. Phonetics and linguistics expertise. 5. Hypnosis theory and scripting. 6. Ideal environmental conditions for recording. 7. NSA ignorance of the subject’s intent and ability to capture a message.
6. This technology is the perfect intelligence tool. It is nearly impossible to detect or measure, difficult to trace back to the NSA. The symptoms that the NSA can “program” or inflict into the subject can cause fear that they might be thought to be insane if they were to report the NSA activities. The subject does not know the source of the technology or the technology itself, the subject has no proof or evidence, only their perception, suffering, and isolation. Additionally, potential recourses that are available to the subject can be interrogated out and preventative actions taken by the NSA to further isolate or disable the subject.
4. Using the Post-Hypnotic Delivery Method with Thought Labels: 1. The NSA technique is simple; they transmit their human programming message through the audio-visual electronic surveillance equipment installed in your home, car, or office to you. The subliminal message delivered to you could be “Mr. Jones, imagine that the IRS were auditing your taxes. Think back to a time you have cheated on your taxes and that you are worried that the IRS might find out in an audit. If you have never cheated on your taxes and have nothing to fear you will feel an itch on your right-hand ear lobe that will go away when you scratch it. If you can be caught by an IRS audit, you will feel an itch in the left nostril of your nose that will disappear after you itch it twice.” From your perspective, you have just had a fleeting thought about your past tax returns and had an innocent itch (thought label). To the NSA Officer On Duty (ODO), you have just communicated to him whether you have ever:
1) cheated on your taxes, and: 2) If the IRS could catch you in an audit.
2. This is a very oversimplified example of a typical NSA interrogation. Actual interrogation messages may consist of several hundred words and be very complex and sophisticated. Most messages consist of several dozen words. Yes indeed, the NSA has exceeded the wildest expectations of the book “1984”. As you can imagine, the spy world has reached a new plateau that directly affects every person in the USA and abroad. This electronic surveillance system extends down through Mexico, Central America, and deep into populated regions of South America. It also has been installed in Australia, Africa, and the free-world countries in Europe.
3. The NSA’s goal is to have the whole world under its electronic eye by the year 2000. They are almost there now, but are having difficulties with high-tech countries that have the counterintelligence resources to identify the high frequency bursts of microwave transmission from the transceivers. The system also has the ability to take a “voice print” from any person and place it on file. This file can be used to locate the subject later by comparing it to real-time surveillance audio samples received from the field as long as the subject is speaking in close proximity to a transceiver.
If the person is aware that the NSA has this capability and remains silent, the NSA can transmit a periodic worldwide subliminal message that addresses the person by name and causes them to dream and talk in their sleep. After the person talks, the voiceprint would be eventually identified and the person’s location can be identified nearly anywhere in the world. Yes, it is a small world, and getting smaller all the time.
4. This technology was originally conceived under CIA studies and fascination with the power of hypnosis in the late 1950’s and perfected by very early 1960s and implemented with unlimited resources to all areas of vital national security interest first.
Originally, after noting the behavioral effects in visual subliminal effects like the highly publicized event where stating “Drink Coca Cola” on a single movie frame “delivered a higher rates of speed than normal movie viewing raised the obvious question, “Does the human hearing work as good as eyesight accepting subliminal messages?”
Preliminary theory work was transferred to Fort Mead NSA who had expertise in characterizing language in analog domains where a sampled phoneme could be edited (shortened by removing excess sine waveforms from the “acoustic wavetrain”) and electronically reconstructed back into shortened words of language.
Some of the early experiments included “Remote Viewing at NSA where the Viewer would relax, open their mind and explain the clarity of images that were described by the NSA using this technology. These early experiments allowed the NSA to refine the specifications of the “Computer Simulated Subconscious Speech Language” and the scripting formats to maximize the ability to deliver an accurate “vision or picture” into the subject. Pictures already seen by the subject could simply be recalled using “Age regression” script variations.
6. OTHER REFERENCE MATERIAL: 1. Please refer to the book “Inside America’s Most Secret Agency, The Puzzle Palace” by James Bamford, Published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 1982. This book contains extensive information and references on the NSA’s history and the NSA’s first surveillance system that originally only eavesdropped on telephones and is now expanded to audio-visual.
7. NSA CASE HISTORY EXAMPLE SUMMARIES: NSA Self-Initiated Execution (Suicide): 1. Bamford’s “The Puzzle Palace” references one of the NSA’s first self-initiated execution (suicide) with this “Thought Control” technology they developed. The NSA employee reportedly ran off NSA property saying demons were in his mind and he killed himself.
2. NSA Initiated Execution to Cover-up in the News: 1. A University of California at Berkley student that went into a bar on or around November 27, 1990 took hostages and insisted to the police that the CIA Director talk with him so that he could get relief from the suffering. The young man had sent letters to the president and the CIA but the requests had fallen on deaf ears. After the young man panicked and shot a customer in the bar, a SWAT team fatally shot him, the San Jose police found copies of the letters written to the President referring to people that could “read minds” and that he had learned how they do it. The NSA had been unsuccessfully brainwashing him and had no alternative but to terminate him to assure their security. It is interesting that what was originally broadcast on the news “The gunman was demanding to talk with the Director of the CIA” etc. disappeared quickly (suppressed?) from later news accounts. 3. NSA Initiated Execution to Cover-up in Music: 1. Curt Cobain of the musical group “Nirvana” was another victim of NSA brainwashing and was terminated by NSA. Cobain had started writing clues to the NSA activities into his music to communicate it to his music followers. He referred in music to the NSA as the “Friends inside his head”. Once the NSA puts on the highest level of brainwashing pain, the subject expires quickly. Cobain used heroin to numb and otherwise slow the effect of the brainwashing. 4. NSA Initiated Executions in Overseas Defense Project: 1. Some years back several employees of the United Kingdom’s Government working on a top secret Radar Project committed suicide with no apparent penetration by a hostile government, drug abuse or any other commonality other than working in a secured government project. They were not “Staged” suicides (murders) because some of them happened behind doors that could not be opened from the outside. These men were subjected to the same technology and processes that the U.C. Berkley student, the NSA officer, Curt Cobain, and thousands of others have experienced. 5. Musical references of NSA Technology: 1. Talking Heads; a music group popular in the eighties, wrote a song explaining the scientific process of the NSA’s brainwashing technology in a song called “Wild Wild Life”. The song gave an example of what the audible transmission sounded like at the end of the song (like a tape on fast forward). They mentioned in the song that “They (NSA) talk so fastà” and that the musical group had spent “All their time and money” unsuccessfully trying to find a place that the NSA would not be able to harass them. The Talking Heads exposed the technology, gave an example of what it sounds like, scenarios of how the NSA might select you or the brainwashing, and the scope of the electronic surveillance system. 6. NSA Counterintelligence Experiments: 1. Many experiments were performed by the NSA to determine the conditions and procedures that would be required to turn spies that were trusted by US enemies into assassins that we could invisibly manage. In early experiments, the resulting NSA experimental subjects would get extensive attention in the news because of the horror and unusual nature of the atrocity.
2. One example that comes to mind happened several years ago and created much news. A man became obsessed with his son, poured gasoline on him and ignited it. He had planned to do the same to himself but his desire for survival overpowered the NSA’s behavioral conditioning. After he was imprisoned, he spoke about how all of a sudden his mind became clear and he couldn’t figure out how he could do this crime. The hypnosis was simply removed and the subject was allowed to sleep so that experts studying the file would not find out anything if the subject would have been subjected to traditional hypnotherapy or other psychoanalytical techniques. Another successful counterintelligence experiment completed with no liability or traceability to the NSA.
3. Perhaps ten years ago I read of several elderly people died of sleep deprivation in Florida. The doctors tried everything they could do but could not stop the sleep deprivation that resulted in a 100% effective termination yield. The NSA had developed the right combination of delivered anxiety scripts combined with muscular tension and delivery schedules optimized according to decreasing post hypnotic durability over time as the subject’s health degraded.
4. David Koresh of the Branch Davidians spent many hours talking with FBI negotiators about God and the Bible and finally waited for “God” to tell him what to do in the final hours of the siege. The compound probably had numbers of Personal Journals (required for subjects by the NSA during brainwashing) that could lead to questions about how this cult came to this level. Additionally, just like other loose ends the NSA had to secure, “God spoke to them and said to commit suicide” and they did securing another one of the NSA’s great experiments in mind control and social pathology.
5. A friend of mine, David Sautter and I worked at Singer, Kearfott Division, producing government weapons where we worked under a multitier security system; Company Security, FBI, DIA, and at the top of the ladder watching the watchers; the NSA. I discussed the NSA’s technology with Dave and a few months later, I heard he had committed suicide inside of a locked room. This theme should familiar by now and the details of the case will be destroyed or rewritten by NSA influences to preserve national security.
7. The cases of NSA activities go on and on. With access to the FBI’s Crime Information Center (CIC), we could find several thousand files having the characteristic patterns where the NSA had experimented on the individuals with their “Thought Control” technology.
8. Currently, the NSA has many subjects in the field (our society) that need only a series of “triggers” (carefully constructed posthypnotic scripts) to send them over the edge and on a mission to kill. The NSA calls them “Shooters on a Shelf”. A recent example was Russell Eugene Weston, Jr. that went on a shooting spree at the Capitol around July 26, 1998. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia, had delusions that he had an affiliation with the CIA or FBI and thought a radio-tracking device was planted in his tooth. He was a product of NSA brainwashing. He did not have the ability to recognize the advanced technology even though he knew that “someone” (CIA, FBI, etc.) was communicating with him and that this communication ability spanned across the USA leading him to believe that he had a tracking device planted on him. Because of the real effects of the NSA hypnosis treatments, he therefore reasoned that the schizophrenia medication would not help and so he quit taking it. This was a man desperately trying to alleviate the suffering the NSA inflicted on him.
9. Through the years, I have met thousands of people that have been brainwashed into Christianity to a level where God tells them what to do in their minds (described as a gentle voice by victims) and they mindlessly obey. Yes, they have “Friends inside their heads” also. It appears the Biblical Anti-Christ in the Book of Revelations has arrived and is convincing many subjects that Jesus is back on earth and directing them.
8. NSA BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION PROCEDURE: 1. The following procedural outline documents typical techniques, processes, explanations, and definitions of the National Security Agency’s Behavioral Modification Procedure using Subliminal Implanted Posthypnotic Suggestions through acoustically delivered phonetically edited language elements combined into scripts without somnambulistic preparation in the subject.
2. In simpler terms, the subject is unknowingly given hypnosis while the subject is completely awake and is tortured and punished with this hypnosis into a predetermined behavior by the National Security Agency. The behavior is usually extremely religious, is called “reborn” by the church, with the subject’s life-long goal of “a personal relationship with Jesus Christ”.
1. ABSTRACT, Behavioral Modification: 1. The NSA’s behavioral modification process starts with identification and qualification of the subject. The NSA used to choose subjects based on the subject’s net present value to the agency in public visibility, financial resources, political clout, or other intelligence and counter-intelligence reasons. Additional considerations are given to minimizing security risks of exposure, the subject’s posthypnotic suggestibility index, the subject’s intelligence and reasoning ability, moral and superstitious beliefs, and the subject’s social status and the weakness of the subject’s primary support groups (family). Now a recent report referenced in the March 26th Business section of the Orange County Register from the National Sleep Foundation reports that 40% of Americans are experiencing sleeping problems. This news could indicate that the NSA is broadening its influence to the greater public. As explained below in this document, the NSA always starts its behavioral modification process with REM Deprivation. 2. After selection, the subject is subjected to long periods of REM Sleep Deprivation and reinforced torturing posthypnotic suggestions that will breakdown the subject’s will, confidence, self-reliance, and moral values. Meanwhile, the subject is increasingly isolated from their familiar and trusted peer groups causing the subject to experience depression, apathy, and ultimately social and financial failure. 3. Typical post-hypnotic induced delusions reported by subjects are tingling in various areas of the body, which are thought to be resulting from microwave beams. Hearing ticks thumps or cracks from walls, ceilings, clocks, lights, etc. Beliefs that the subject’s neighbors are conspiring against them, or that the subject is being followed. Sometimes subjects believe that the various perceptions, feelings and experiences are the result of “Implants” in their body.
It is important for the subjects to understand that the NSA controls this technology from nuclear hardened underground shelters and the neighbors next door have nothing to do with the subject’s experiences. Nobody has the time or inclination to follow a subject around with a microwave gun to tickle various parts of the body. We are saturated with microwaves all the time from television stations, communication satellites, etc and yet we do not have any symptoms because microwaves do not have the ability to trigger localized synaptic responses in our brains. Furthermore, when the subject is in a room surrounded by several people, and the subject is the only one experiencing the “thoughts”, tingling feelings, etc., then obviously a delivery method is being employed that affects only the subject; high-speed acoustic delivered hypnosis. 4. After a while, the subject has an emotional breakdown and a new support group is built around the subject. The new support group is typically a church with doctrines centered in the Bible but the NSA also uses cults and other social groups. The NSA prefers Christian churches because the doctrines allow “God or Jesus to speak directly to the subject” and the negative reinforcement can be attributed with Satan and the positive rewards can be considered to be blessings from God thereby masking the NSA’s technology and processes. When the NSA uses other relationships without in which the subject experiences a religious awakening and “Gives their Life to Christ” and the NSA achieves total control of the subject. 5. The subject is slowly released from the damaging uncomfortable hypnosis and it is replaced with positive rewarding hypnosis as “God and Jesus works in their life”. Soon, the subject has complete loyalty to Jesus (AKA: NSA) and will do anything on command from Jesus (NSA). 6. The subject is required to give daily status reports in the form of prayers in the privacy of their home, office, or car where the NSA’s electronic surveillance system captures and sorts the prayers by “Keywords”. The NSA then delivers additional hypnosis in the form of punishments or rewards or directs the subject accordingly to “God’s will”. If the subject resist’s the NSA’s instructions, additional punishments are inflicted on the subject. 7. The subject is institutionalized in this system where any nonconformances committed by the subject are watched, critiqued, and reported on through prayer by other “Christians” to the NSA. Thus, the new church peer group acts as a behavioral reinforcing mechanism that will bring any of the subject’s problems to the NSA as they have been trained themselves (this is similar to the Nazi Gestapo of World War 2 and other communist approaches). 8. A subject that has successfully completed the NSA’s behavioral modification program lives out the rest of their mediocre life in service to Jesus (NSA) and never causes any waves in the church or news media for fear of reprisal from the NSA. The subject’s lives are relatively unproductive because their focus is on their “Life after death” and not what they accomplish while they are alive. They avoid “worldly activities”, and usually are confused and disjointed in rational thoughts and concepts. For instance, they don’t believe in anything that is not in the Bible, i.e. dinosaurs, evolution, space travel, even though they ride on airplanes and watch television both of which are not referenced in the Bible.
3. BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION PROCESS: 1. Triggering Techniques: 1. The NSA minimizes security subject might recognize when the NSA was not actively watching causing a security concern and it would be cost prohibitive to baby-sit the subject 24 hours a day.
2. Behavioral modification generally occurs fastest when using negative reinforcement continuously. It is not practical or economical to watch a subject continuously to apply real time deliveries. Additionally, using all three script delivery patterns confuses the subject, causes the subject to believe they are always being watched, and maximizes behavioral change over time though continuous pressure.
2. Real-Time Subconscious Implant Delivery: 1. Real-time means that the NSA ODO is transmitting the posthypnotic command script to the subject and observing the subject’s response. This technique is required for subliminal interrogations. All NSA standard posthypnotic command scripts can be delivered real-time. This form of delivery can precipitate the perception of a “voice” heard in the mind of a subject to give them information (true or false) or orders depending on the purpose of the NSA’s activities.
3. Prescheduled Subconscious Implant Delivery: The NSA central switching computer can transmit a script to a specified subject at a pre-specified time. The transmitted script’s transmission range can be limited to a single building, a city, or a large geographical area (i.e. North America or Europe). By having prescheduled scripts, the subject has seemingly randomly occurring thoughts and feelings that can’t be associated with a commonly recurring situation like event-triggered scripts precipitate.
4. Event-Triggered (conditional) Implant Delivery: 1. Posthypnotic subconscious implants that are triggered (activated) with an event, thought, or code word (event-triggered or conditional) are strongly experienced by the subject and are powerful tools for reinforcing a predetermined desired behavior and inflicting delusions.
2. This type of posthypnotic commands are the ones most commonly used by hypnotherapists to help people quit smoking, study better, or in general, change behavior (behavioral modification). There is extensive information on the Internet and college libraries about this form of posthypnotic command delivery and how to “script” and use them.
3. The NSA can reinforce a predetermined desired behavior by associating a subconscious implant (negative or positive reinforcement) with an event. An example is that when the NSA want’s to isolate the subject from the company of a specific person place or thing, the subject will be implanted with a feeling of increased anxiety, hostility, tension, simple discomfort, or a feeling of a lack of peace. When the subject leaves the person, place, or thing, another posthypnotic implant is triggered that rewards the subject’s behavior with a feeling of relief from the anxiety, hostility, tension, discomfort, and peace is restored in the subject’s mind.
Example: This script will always cause a girl or boy not to sleep with the opposite sex: “You will feel very tense and not be able to relax if you kiss, sleep with, or stay long at your (boy or girl) friend’s house and you will feel a deep peace when you leave their house to go back home”. These types of scripts left unmanaged and not removed can cause great harm as the subject develops and social conditions and behaviors change over time.
4. It should be noted that the NSA precisely tailors the type of negative and/or positive reinforcement, the degree of the reinforcement, the duration of the reinforcing effect and the conditions of the trigger. This posthypnotic event-triggered reinforcement can be initiated gradually and can remain so subtle that the subject believes that the discomfort is naturally occurring and that it is the subject’s decision uninfluenced by anyone else that the subject should avoid the person, place or thing.
5. This subconscious implant can be combined with other implants like a posthypnotic-triggered thought to enhance the subject’s decision toward the situation. For example the subject can be subconsciously implanted with a command to be very sensitive to the changes in their feelings and to feel great about making strong decisions to take charge of their lives. This can be reinforced with another posthypnotic suggestion to avoid all the situations that cause the subject discomfort and that each time the subject commits himself/herself to removing a situation of this kind in their lives, they will feel an increasing control over their lives. Note that as the subject perceives an increasing control over their lives they are actually losing control to the NSA proportionately. Numerous other examples exist and it is beyond the scope of this document to document every possibility.
5. Stage 1 (Prescreen Evaluation): 1. The subject’s Posthypnotic Suggestibility Index is determined by a series of simple tests. Hypnoamnesia is applied to the subject for the name of an object or individual and the subject’s speed is timed to determine how quickly they can overcome or not overcome the posthypnotic suggestion “You will not be able to remember the name of “____” no matter how hard you try. Other posthypnotic suggestions can be used to create fear or discomfort in the subject that can be remedied by flight or movement. The subject must overcome a posthypnotic suggestion that they cannot move no matter how hard they try. In summary, a posthypnotic suggestion is given to the subject and the subject’s ability to overcome it is evaluated.
2. A full study of the subject’s religious, superstitions, fears, and insecurities is made through standard subliminal interrogation techniques and behavioral observation.
3. Interrogation scenarios are presented to the subject using standard subliminal interrogation techniques and somnambulistic interrogation techniques. The standard two types of scenarios are “Open-ended Questions” (similar to multiple choice with response labels pre-assigned to each choice) or “Reject if Disagreeable” (negative response label if the subject disagrees). More advanced techniques of interrogation scenarios are used as required or as determined by the experience of the ODO.
4. Real-time observation, standard subliminal interrogation techniques and somnambulistic interrogation techniques are used to determine the subject’s overall social status, abilities, attitudes, and communication skills with primary support groups and friends.
5. Scientific understanding and practical applications experience in the fields of psychology, hypnosis, and problem analysis are considered risks in the subject that may complicate or inhibit subsequent behavioral modification processes. Once the subject identifies the technology used it is nearly impossible to contain the potential security breach without terminating the subject. Most NSA initiated executions (suicides) are the result of the subject identifying the technology used or carelessness on the part of the ODO managing the file.
6. The NSA technology affords powerful control over the subject, the subject’s environment, and the subject’s ability to plan and implement a disclosure to appropriate Government Agencies. When the subject finally does achieve a disclosure, the subject’s physical and mental condition is depleted. The subject’s ability to communicate concisely has been arrested, and the subject has already been set up and dishonored in the sight of local and federal law enforcement agencies to assure the subject’s testimony is questionable and unsubstantiated. Where the NSA feels that these steps cannot be achieved in medium risk subjects, the NSA will not recruit the subject into the behavioral modification process. 6. Stage 2 (Standard Process): 1. This stage is where most subjects are behaviorally modified to serve and follow “God” (AKA NSA management of the subject’s civil rights). If the subject accepts religion and direction at this stage the NSA reinforces the subject’s relationship with Jesus and closes the file. This shortened program receives the maximum return for the NSA for the least investment and minimizes the security risk. It also causes the least amount of damage and institutionalization in the subject.
2. Coincidence: 1. Coincidence is used to create the perception in the subject that supernatural events are beginning in the subject’s life. A combination of posthypnotic commands and pre-information awarded to the subject prior to an upcoming experience that the NSA intelligence system has discovered gives the subject a feeling that “God” or some other supernatural being is taken interest in their life.
2. The following is one typical technique used by the NSA. NSA Intelligence gathers information regarding the topic of the sermon in the subject’s church. This information is gathered through electronic surveillance equipment installed in the church. The NSA then implants a posthypnotic command that triggers the subject’s mind into concern and contemplation about the sermon’s topic prior to going to church. When the subject hears the sermon, the sermon seems to be speaking directly to the subject that adds to God’s mysterious and unexplainable ability to address the innermost concerns of the subject, especially when the subject has not shared those concerns with any other human being.
3. Another typical method used by NSA concerns tragic events occurring to loved ones. NSA Intelligence receives a local broadcast or preliminary information through electronic surveillance that a subject’s relative has been injured or killed. The subject is given a posthypnotic suggestion that a feeling of dread or loss is welling up inside them and they are directed to think of that particular loved one. When they are finally notified through official channels, the subject believes that they have special powers, insights, or communications from God, aliens, or other entities.
3. REM Sleep Deprivation: 1. The Rapid Eye Movement (REM) stage of sleep is controlled and usually limited to one to two cycles per night resulting in micro-sleeps during the day. REM deprivation inhibits short-term memory, concentration, tactile abilities, verbal articulation, reasoning, and self will. Protein synthesis is inhibited and thereby reduces the subject’s ability to heal after physical damage or after periods of extensive exercise. The result is that the subject’s general health degrades as does social bonds and work/school performance.
2. The NSA performs control of REM Sleep through various methods. Posthypnotic implants can be implanted that place a subject in a light sleep (posthypnotic trance) with various combinations of muscular tension and computer cycling implant deliveries (to be discussed later).
3. Subjects typically complain of no sleep, restless sleep, waking up every hour on the hour, staying awake until the hour they have to get up, waking up an hour after they retire and not returning to sleep, and typically cannot recall any dreams. Additionally, they will complain of repeating torturing thoughts, racing thoughts, and facial itching and numbness. Daily fatigue, poor recall of names, and caffeine consumption is typical.
4. Dark rings’ surrounding the eyes is evident and the darkened area around the eyes can be reported as sore or tender by the subject. The subtle perceptual impairing effects of REM deprivation make it more difficult for the subject to identify the REM Deprivation problem. When the REM depravation onslaught is gradual and accompanied by a posthypnotic command that the subject “will feel energetic and rested”, the subject will not recognize the REM Deprivation. Additional posthypnotic commands can be implanted that will make it difficult for the subject to “see or perceive” the rings surrounding their eyes. I have seen many subjects with very dark eye rings and the subjects could not recognize them at all.
4. Shame Factor Enhancement: 1. Various posthypnotic suggestions are implanted in the subject after a week or so long period of REM deprivation. The content of the posthypnotic scripts is constructed to cause the subject to perform embarrassing and otherwise shameful acts (usually sexual but always anti-social). These shameful behaviors are used by the NSA later to shame the person into a lower self esteem, reduced confidence in their own self discipline, a need for forgiveness from God. These embarrassments provide a means to Blackmail or discredit the subject if the NSA is detected and otherwise threatened by the subject.
2. The NSA will always use another law enforcement agency to document the behavioral discrepancy to retain anonymity. The NSA has been known to help subjects avoid prosecution to gain loyalty or create an adversarial relationship between the acting agency and the subject (another intimidation factor) even though the NSA was responsible for creating the behavioral problem in the subject’s life.
5. Religious Relevance and Convictions: 1. The NSA typically implants posthypnotic suggestions that are clearly referenced in the Bible. The subject may be punished (through negative reinforcement) by anything that is referenced in the Bible to substantiate the validity of the “Word of God”. When the NSA does not follow the standard Biblical references, most subjects fail to recognize the contradictions out of ignorance or an inability to rationalize, or, they find other ways to justify the events to receive peace from God (NSA). This component of the NSA process is to provide the subject with an increased sense of fear and intimidation resulting from God’s presence and force. “Thou shall not disobey God”.
6. Paranoia: 1. Paranoia is a powerful tool used by the NSA. It provides a means to develop the subject’s distrust of other people including the subject’s primary group that could provide positive support during this time of distress in the subject’s life. Paranoia is often recognized and discounted as a character fault by most peoples in American society and therefore discredits the subject’s testimony even further. Uninformed, but well wishing people including friends, may recommend to the subject to pursue counseling. This negative feedback can make the subject fear that people will believe the subject is crazy.
2. When the subject seeks professional counseling, the result will be a misdiagnosis with an expensive, inappropriate and ineffective treatment. The observed symptoms result from simply hypnosis, not biological, chemical, or environmental stresses. A misdiagnosis strongly motivates the subject not to communicate their experiences to others to avoid social disgrace of a “schizophrenia” label and additional financial burden. This isolation of the subject and their reluctance to communicate their experience to others reduces NSA security risk. The NSA cannot allow the subject to share information with other subjects that have already experienced the program and thereby starting a pool of information that could be compiled and used to expose the NSA system.
3. The subject is led to believe that the subject’s neighbors, work associates and/or family are conspiring against the subject through a number of scripts delivered to the subject by the NSA. The NSA can further complicate the conspiracy delusion by using the same technology to have a work associate ask the subject a question or to make a comment that can be used by the NSA to confirm the subjects fears. This technique further isolates the subject from trusting their peer groups, causes additional emotional distress and hostility toward these people. The subject sometimes resorts to violent behavior, which is viewed by observers as irrational, unprovoked behavior that may be treated as criminal behavior by law enforcement personnel.
7. Stage 3 (Extreme Process): 1. This method is very severe and usually results in a two to five year program. Because of the severity of the suffering, the subject is usually permanently impaired for integration into normal mainstream life and is essentially institutionalized. The result is that the subject must reside in a less competitive environment like a church group. Subjects that receive this program tend to be highly superstitious, are agitated easily when objective evidence that contradicts their belief system is presented. They tend to believe in the spiritual world (demons, ghosts, god, spiritual entities, etc) and consider the spiritual world to be more powerful and important than the material or real world. This program basically follows the following steps; REM deprivation, breakdown of self esteem and confidence, intense suffering, exaggerated conscience, spiritual contact, reborn in Jesus Christ, Spiritual battle, release (saved by the Savior), and recovering (blessed by Jesus Christ). Whenever possible the NSA will skip or reduce these steps to minimize security risk and financial cost.
2. Increasing Dependence on Drugs and Alcohol: 1. As the REM Deprivation increases the subject must depend on Central Nervous System (CNS) Stimulants to compensate for degradation of productivity at work, school, and in interpersonal relationships. This serves the NSA in several ways. Use of drugs (especially CNS stimulants) increases the subject’s index of suggestibility. Or in other words, the post hypnotic commands are more effective and the subject has greater difficulty resisting the impulses generated by the commands. In addition, the increased stress of coping with the drugs in conjunction with the resisting the newly introduced posthypnotic commands serves to push the subject closer to an emotional breakdown. If the subject uses illegal drugs, the NSA tries to set the subject up for a conviction to get assure that the subject looses credibility. Who would believe a drug user that claimed that he/she was being harassed by a government agency that was tormenting them with hypnosis? It also serves the NSA in the program by documenting something that the subject will be ashamed of when the program reaches the exaggerated conscience stage.
2. Alcohol, sleeping pills and other medications also inhibit REM Stage sleep and increase irritability over time thereby further degrading and isolating the subject.
3. In summary, the NSA benefits from the subject responding to the REM Deprivation assault with self-medication. This response discredits the subject by labeling them in society as a drug user, it enhances the effect of the implanted posthypnotic commands and it gives the subject a reason for shame that will be used against the subject later to justify the punishment from “God”. It should be noted that the subject is not really guilty of anything, except being a victim that was manipulated in a carefully controlled scientific behavior modification process.
3. Poor Nutrition: 1. The poor nutrition reduces the energy the subject has and serves later as another justification of God’s punishment. The subject will be taught later that “the body is the temple” and that to abuse it is to violate God’s will.
4. Apathy: 1. After the subject’s self-esteem is broken down and continuing failure and persistent suffering start to dominate every day, the individual becomes apathetic as a defense mechanism. At this stage the subject has committed another sin of “not persevering through faith” which is later used on the subject later to increase a feeling of guilt.
5. Depression: 1. Depression precipitates as a result of chronic REM Sleep Deprivation, social isolation and a feeling of helplessness in the subject. Commonly, when the subject seeks professional counseling, they are misdiagnosed and treated for depression with medications but the root cause of the problem (negative reinforcing posthypnotic suggestions inflicted over long periods of time) is not treated or corrected.
6. Insecurity: 1. The subject starts to experience severe insecurity in this stage. The NSA uses this insecurity against the subject in several ways. Because of the impaired reasoning ability and emotional isolation, the subject is susceptible to the approaches of insincere people, which are used by the NSA to emotionally hurt the subject more. This allows the NSA to convince the subject that people can’t be trusted and that only the NSA (Jesus) can be trusted. This serves to isolate the subject from supportive peer groups and makes the subject emotionally dependent on the NSA resulting in the NSA gaining more power in the subject’s life.
7. Journals and Diaries: 1. Most of the subjects are directed to keep a “Journal” or diary by the NSA so that the subject can record and review feelings, events, observations, and “God’s directions” that normally would be unavailable due to short term memory loss during extended periods of REM Deprivation. The NSA uses the Subject’s Journals in a variety of ways.
8. Degrading Spelling and Grammatical Performance:
1. Subjects in these prolonged stages of REM deprivation, confusion, and emotional distress, have very poor grammar, spelling, and short attention spans.
9. Slowed Speech: 1. Subjects experience slower speech and have a greater time articulating concise points as a result of the REM Deprivation and other performance degrading posthypnotic commands. Very slight alcohol consumption can exasperate the damage of REM Deprivation and precipitate slurred speech.
10. Confusion: 1. Confusion results from three primary sources; REM Deprivation, specific posthypnotic commands to reinforce the confusion, and the emotional damage and stress that is being inflicted. The confusion allows the NSA to continuously inflict damage to the subject’s life without real-time observation. A confused person generally is not as productive as an organized clear thinker is and has a greater potential to offend people by what they say or do and is less likely to recognize when they have made mistakes. All of these symptoms assist the NSA’s objectives in this stage and subsequent stages. In addition, the confusion restricts the individual from analyzing the source of their suffering and taking corrective actions, and therefore reduces the NSA’s security risk.
11. Poor Concentration: 1. Difficulty concentrating impairs the subject’s productivity and restrains the subject from making self-improvements and corrections in behavior. It makes it very difficult for the subject to do any research or reading to evaluate his/her condition. This paves the way for the NSA to demonstrate that the subject cannot do anything on their own without “God”, thereby increasing the frustration and anxiety of the subject (inducing emotional breakdown) and ultimately making the subject totally dependant on the will of God.
12. Loose Association and Personality Disorders: 1. The subject experiences disjointed thought at this stage (Loose Association) that appears to observers as a strange sense of humor or inappropriate responses when engaging in conversations. Ongoing sarcasm and other negative attitudes and undesirable personality traits can be present.
13. Anger: 1. The way that the subject experiences anger is of profound importance. If the subject allows the NSA to redirect the increasing anger and hostilities toward the NSA to another person in the form of violence (misplaced aggression), the NSA will reinforce the violent behavior with posthypnotic commands. The result is a person that can achieve national acclaim as a murderer that heard voices of Satan directing him/her. Typically, the Subject is encouraged to commit acts of violence with spouses, friends, or employers resulting in further social isolation and increased shame. Some examples of NSA directed victims of misplaced aggression include recent US Postal Workers whom work within the Postal Service. This is one of the vial “communication intercept” channels the NSA is directed to monitor. The routes of suspect mail and the postal worker processing it are continuously monitored by NSA. Sometimes the NSA ODO takes issue with a Postal Worker and harasses them or subjects the postal worker to behavioral modification.
14. Delusions: 1. Delusions are used to discredit the witness and also provide an additional source for fear, intimidation and confusion. Delusions can be but are not limited to the Subject developing conspiracy theories of fellow employees and friends, beliefs that Angels or Demons are communicating or visiting them, tingling sensations from microwave guns or implants, beliefs in supernatural events, etc.
15. Audio Hallucinations: 1. Subjects often report hearing walls clicking, footsteps in the house, the sound of someone trying to open the door, drilling at the door, etc.
2. These audio hallucinations are also used to discredit the witness and also provide an additional source for paranoia, fear, and negative reinforcement.
16. Voices in the Subject’s Mind: 1. The voices in the subject’s mind are achieved in a variety of ways using real-time and prescheduled posthypnotic suggestion deliveries, and Noun Substitution implant techniques.
2. Noun Substitution Posthypnotic Implant:
1. The subject can have a posthypnotic suggestion implanted that changes the form of pronouns in the subject’s internal thinking. The result is the subject perceives that someone is telling him/her to do something with nearly every thought. An example is; the subject thinks, “I should go to church today”. With the noun substitution posthypnotic suggestion the subject experiences the following internal thought, “You should go to church today!”
Notice that by implanting the posthypnotic command into the subject’s subconscious mind to think the pronoun “You” instead of “I” the subject will perceive that they are being directed by a voice even though the majority of the internal thought content is their own naturally occurring thought. This subconscious implant can be used in combination with other implants to increase the subject’s perception of threat, fear, and therefore paranoia. It can be used with other posthypnotic suggestion implants that will give the subject the perception of either a “good” or “evil” voice or spirit is directing him/her.
This implant is powerful because it gives the subject the perception that the spirit, angel, God or Holy Spirit knows and directs the subject’s every thought. It provides a convincing proof that “God knows every thought of his children”. Subjects that don’t have a superstitious frame of reference and seek professional help are usually misdiagnosed as schizophrenic.
17. Tinnitus (Ear Ringing): 1. Tinnitus is commonly reported by subjects harassed by the NSA and typically has no pharmacological or biochemical basis and is produced by a posthypnotic suggestion. It is often misdiagnosed as ringing caused by excessive aspirin use and is actually an audio hallucination triggered by hypnosis.
18. Complete Quiet Silence: 1. Used by the NSA as a positive reinforcement for two general reasons; the subject has the tinnitus removed to indicate that the subject has “The Lord’s Peace Restored”, and secondly, the subject has achieved a milestone toward being released by God (the NSA).
19. Quiet Wind: 1. The audio hallucination of a quiet wind is used to convince the subject that the Holy Spirit is visiting him/her. An excellent example of this hallucination combined with the fear that accompanies it is contained in Phil Collin’s lyrics of a song that has the chorus “I can get so scared, Listen to the wind”.
20. Visual Hallucinations: 1. Visual hallucinations are usually implanted in the waking moments when a subject is coming out of or is in a somnambulatory state (light sleep) preferably in a darkened room. The hallucinations are fleeting, usually lasting less than one minute and are not durable. Typical hallucinations reported by subjects are Angels, large spiders, and movement of various shadowy objects across the ceiling, bright spot of light ahead of the subject, etc.
2. The television show “Sightings” has had numerous reports of people seeing “Aliens” at waking moments. These types of news accounts create confusion in US society and serve to keep people searching for the wrong phenomenon thus keeping the NSA’s technology secure (disinformation).
21. Tactile, Olfactory hallucinations and Muscle Spasms: 1. Tactile hallucinations can be more durable and are used to communicate a desired direction to the subject typically after a real-time interrogation. Typical behavioral cues issued by the NSA are manifested in the form of:
1. Temporary sensation of pressure to the tip of the right index finger (symbolizing Faith or have Faith).
2. Temporary sensation of pressure to the tip of the left index finger (symbolizing no Faith or “deception of Satan”).
3. Temporary sensation of pressure to the center of the right palm (symbolizing Jesus “Sitting at the right-hand of God”).
4. Temporary sensation of pressure to the ball of the right foot (symbolizing “Get on the Ball” or “hurry-up”).
5. Temporary sensation of pressure to the tip of the right foot big toe (symbolizing “Right Direction”).
6. Temporary sensation of pressure to the tip of the right foot center toe (symbolizing “Fucking-up Direction”).
7. Temporary sensation of pressure to the tip of the left foot big toe (symbolizing “Wrong Direction”).
8. Temporary sensation of pressure to the buttocks (symbolizing “Bad Attitude” or “subject is acting like an ass”).
9. Temporary sensation of pressure on tip of penis or clitoris (symbolizes immoral thoughts like subject is thinking/acting with his penis or her clitoris).
10. Temporary sensation of pressure to the left ear drum (symbolizing “do not listen”).
11. Temporary sensation of pressure to the right ear drum (symbolizing “listen”).
12. An involuntary blink of the right or left eye (symbolizing: right eye = God’s agreement or left eye = Satan’s agreement).
13. Temporary tingling sensation on the Testicles (symbolizing insufficient male confidence or “Having no balls or strength”).
14. Temporary tingling on other areas of the body to imply that something invisible and/or supernatural is touching the subject. May be perceived as threatening or reassuring to the subject. Can be used to intimidate and confuse the subject often times combined with additional posthypnotic implants to inflict delusions like “being attacked with microwaves” or being caressed by Angels.
15. Muscular spasm or perceived pressures near the jugular vein on right side of neck (symbolizing Satan having subject by Jugular or throat). This is used to inflict fear and doubt.
16. Muscular spasms are sometimes used to inflict severe pain on the subject by causing extreme involuntary contraction of the sphincterin the anal region or other lower back or leg muscles.
17. Perceived odor sensation of a thick, sweet smell (symbolizing Satan’s sweet victory over the subject’s soul).
9. This section is written in an attempt to provide interested individuals with some of the considerations and precautions when seeking to demonstrate the NSA’s civil rights abuses by demonstrating the effectiveness and concepts of subliminal access using Subliminal Implanted Posthypnotic Suggestions and Scripts Using Acoustically Delivered and Phonetically Accelerated Posthypnotic Commands without Somnambulistic Preparation in the Subject.
1. Reverse engineering of the NSA’s technology to prove it’s abuses against the American people is quite difficult. Consider the following.
2. If the scientists and technicians perform their research in a facility that the NSA has the standard transceivers installed, and therefore the NSA can influence the direction of research or the data by effecting perceptual effects in the researchers.
These perceptual effects can be confusion, lack of attention to important details, oversights, bad assumptions, incorrect interpretation of the test data. These same misperceptions will also be incorporated into the research test subjects. The technology cannot be developed and optimized if the NSA has any access to the test subjects. The test scripts given to the test subject delivered from the researcher can be neutralized by the NSA delivering a canceling script immediately after the researcher’s script. The NSA’s test script can also include a hypnoamnesia script at the end to cancel any residual perception in the subject so that the test subject would report no effects and the researcher would conclude the test script had no effect.
3. The research must be carried out in a facility secured from all NSA electronic intrusion. All equipment in the facility must be TEMPEST protected and electrically isolated from the outside world.
The research personnel and their subjects must never leave the secured area of the facility so that they cannot be subliminally interrogated by the NSA. The NSA would take this opportunity to deliver disinformation scripts to the subject or researcher. Foodstuffs and supplies would be the logical choice of NSA intrusion if all other security measures were effective against the NSA.
4. The NSA will exploit all opportunities to introduce microscopic transceivers into the facility of it’s surrounding grounds. The minimal requirements for the NSA to take control of the research are:
1. NSA audio delivery (a micro receiver with a micro speaker)
2. Visibility of the targets (researcher or test subject) to capture response labels during subliminal interrogations. This can be through normal illumination or infrared to see through window, or millimeter wave or other technologies that can see through barriers like walls and ceilings.
3. Audible response labels can be used if the NSA has a micro receiver with a micro speaker inside but cannot get a transmitter in and operating without detection. Sneezes, coughs, clearing of throat that can be picked up by laser microphones, audible amplification microphones, etc. can also be used as response labels.
5. The NSA currently has satellites with millimeter wave technology that will allow visible intrusion into most facilities. The test facilities should be deep underground, AKA 1000 feet with no adjacent access from other facilities, sewer lines, water lines or power conduits etc.
6. Any facilities existing will have to be debugged before habitation and research begins.
7. Subjects must be able to be subjected to traditional hypnosis after facility habitation as a test prior to research to assure that the NSA has minimal scripts already implanted.
8. This technology is the highest level of intelligence gathering for the USA. The abuses resulting from mismanagement of this area of the NSA’s intelligence system must force Congress to legislate additional laws to protect the citizens. The NSA must regulate this system better. The NSA will take all necessary steps without limit to assure that this technology is preserved and autonomously under their control.
10. Conclusion: America’s greatest and highest level intelligence asset is being mismanaged and the mismanagement must be corrected before all the Enemies of our great country acquire it. Imagine if China had this technology to use on their defenseless population?
11. May God help us all in protecting the American public and preserving and managing this vital technology’s vital potential to serve America’s National Security.
Mass Mind Control in the Present-Day U.S. — The big picture
There are a number of interlocking systems, technologies and techniques which are currently being deployed against the citizens of the United States of America by certain segments of our national government.
First, there are literally COUNTLESS mind-control projects and sub-projects in operation at this time which target SPECIFIC subjects/victims in a variety of ways; using one or more of a number of technologies such as drugs, (ritual) psycho-sexual abuse, a vast panoply of different EM/RF mind control technologies, repetitive conditioning, hypnotic trance induction, and so on and on and on.
Reliable reports from MANY different sources indicate that as many as TEN MILLION individuals many be ACTIVE subjects/victims of these kinds of mind control activities, and huge quantities of hard documentation on a great many of these projects DOES exist.
However, in addition to these kinds of mind control operations, there are ALSO mind control and mind manipulation activities that target MASSES of people in large geographical regions at the same time. Indeed, there is VERY strong evidence that the operators of HAARP for example, have ever since HAARP’s earliest days intended that it be used for, among many other things, GLOBAL mind control.
There is in FACT much evidence to show that HAARP is NOW being used for just such utterly evil purposes by the United States federal government.
Of course, there are many other EM/RF technologies and systems which are, or may be, applied to mass-scale mind, mood, thought and consciousness control/manipulation operations: such as the nationwide “GWEN” (Ground Wave Emergency Network) system, certain ELF and ULF transmitter systems, and so on (such as your TV set, even IF it’s turned OFF!)
Another way to manipulate and “regulate” the minds and consciousness of a mass of people at a VERY basic, fundamental level is to CONTROL the population’s PRIMARY sources of INFORMATION. This is one of the MOST powerful ways shape the collective consciousness of the public, and it is CLEAR that many mass media outlets in the United States are both willingly and un-wittingly aiding and abetting the manipulation of our minds by the government, and are assisting the FedGov in carrying out many social-engineering agendas.
The mass media’s treatment of school shooting incidents, for instance, plays DIRECTLY and TOTALLY into the schemes of those who deployed the mind-controlled killers to carry out these shootings, in a grand plan to shut down our Constitution’s 2nd Amendment, among other things.
Moreover, very carefully designed CONDITIONING programs and tactics have been brought to bear against nearly EVERY segment of society; disseminated throughout the nation and the world by mass media and entertainment industries and corporations; and imbedded in ALL forms of so-called entertainment at this point, such as movies, TV shows, video and computer games ESPECIALLY, some pop music, and so on.
This condition of constant, relentless bombardment with grotesquely violent imagery, which the general population, ESPECIALLY its younger members, is inundated with by nearly ALL forms of popular contemporary entertainment and sources of “information”, is indeed directly derived from those mind-conditioning programs and systems developed at Fort Detrick (and other similar locations). San Diego shooter Charles Williams’ father worked at the Army’s Fort Detrick facility for THIRTEEN YEARS.
Specifically, indoctrination/conditioning programs were developed at Fort Detrick in which subjects were repeatedly, continually and continuously immersed in virtual reality-type video/computer “games” of extreme and GRAPHIC brutality, for long stretches of time and over an extended time frame.
This kind of psychological assault proved very effective in rapidly obliterating subjects’ ethical and moral values and cultural norms with regard to violence, brutality, killing and so on.
These systems were perfected, applied to the brainwashing and conditioning of members of the U.S. military and also turned over to the intelligence sectors for other applications. The intelligence sector, in turn, DELIBERATELY and successfully undertook to have this same kind of HIGHLY negative, destructive and effective conditioning applied to SOCIETY AS A WHOLE, via mass conditioning of our consciousness through the entertainment and information industries, as noted.
One OTHER method of mass mind control/manipulation/conditioning which is NOW being utilized MORE and MORE — ESPECIALLY against the most vulnerable members of our society, our CHILDREN — is the highly-reprehensible/questionable and increasingly common MANDATED DRUGGING of ever-growing numbers of children through hugely intrusive, invasive, ill-advised, psychologically unpredictable and often destructive programs mandated, usually for young males, by psychiatrists and social workers. More and more of our children are being dosed on a long-term basis with any of a number of psychotropic/psychiatric drugs like Prozac, Ritalin, Luvox, and so on.
These drugs not ONLY are PROVEN to induce SEVERE and often VERY VIOLENT psychotic reactions among a significant percentage of subjects, but ALSO clearly and provably create a stupefied, dumbed-down, zombified mental state in targeted subjects which is a PERFECT “ground state” for the carrying out of yet OTHER mind control/manipulation/conditioning activities on these very same subjects. In general, this kind of psych-drugging makes the job of further mind control programming MUCH easier. And this kind of drugging is being done to ever-increasing numbers of our children, down to toddlers as young as TWO and THREE YEARS OLD!!
Now, there is ANOTHER way in which our present-day society is being literally and effectively mind-controlled en masse.
Most all of the individually-targeted mind control programs we noted above use one or more methods to induce a PSYCHOTIC BREAK or SPLIT PERSONALITY in the victim/subject. In fact, one or more of these deliberately-induced split personalities formed as a result of psycho-sexual abuse or other conditioning are those facets of the subject’s psyche which ARE actually “programmed”; to kill, or whatever else. It’s been shown that forcing victims/subjects to witness, experience or participate in just about any highly-traumatic and shocking events on a repeated basis will induce the kind of psychotic break(down) that is a necessary prerequisite for intensive mind control programming/conditioning.
SO: WHEN our society as a whole is FORCED to confront and WITNESS over and over and over again something as FUNDAMENTALLY shocking as having our young people perpetrating inconceivably horrific mass murders of peers and others on A REGULAR BASIS, as is NOW THE CASE in the present-day United States, then the population as a whole AND on an individual basis to some extent develops an analogous, similar psychological break, and in FACT to some extent develops split personality/multiple personality disorder conditions… READY FOR FURTHER MIND CONTROL PROGRAMMING.
THUS: such extraordinarily disturbing events which impact society AS A WHOLE, such as these school shootings by young people that have just occurred, ALSO serve the malignant, demonic agendas of the FedGov/NWO social controllers who set these terrible mass killings off; and the incidents themselves serve to further condition, manipulate and “mind control” the population of the United States in the year 2001.
What are Artificial Neural Networks? The implementation of Neural Networks for brain-like computations like patterns recognition, decisions making, motory control and many others is made possible by the advent of large scale computers in the late 1950’s. http://www.rgsoftware.com/