Cyber-Cognitive-Warfare!

Cyber-Cognitive-Warfare


By: François du Cluzel

Executive Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………4
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….5
The advent of Cognitive Warfare ……………………………………………………………….6
From Information Warfare to Cognitive Warfare …………………………………………….6
Hacking the individual ………………………………………………………………………………………….7
Trust is the target …………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
Cognitive Warfare, a participatory propaganda ………………………………………………8
Behavioural economy ……………………………………………………………………………………………9
Cyber psychology …………………………………………………………………………………………………11
The centrality of the human brain ……………………………………………………………..12
Understanding the brain is a key challenge for the future …………………………..12
The vulnerabilities of the human brain ……………………………………………………………..13
The role of emotions …………………………………………………………………………………………….15
The battle for attention ………………………………………………………………………………………..15
Long-term impacts of technology on the brain ………………………………………………16
The promises of neurosciences…………………………………………………………………………. 17
The militarisation of brain science …………………………………………………………….19
Progress and Viability of Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T) …………19
Military and Intelligence Use of NeuroS/T ……………………………………………………….20
Direct Weaponisation of NeuroS/T ……………………………………………………………………21
Neurodata ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
The neurobioeconomy …………………………………………………………………………………………23
Towards a new operational domain …………………………………………………………..25
Russian and Chinese Cognitive Warfare Definition……………………………………….. 26
It’s about Humans …………………………………………………………………………………………………28
Recommendations for NATO ………………………………………………………………………………32
Definition of the Human Domain ………………………………………………………………………32
Impact on Warfare Development ……………………………………………………………………….34
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36
Bibliography and Sources …………………………………………………………………………..37
Annex 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………38
Nation State Case Study 1: The weaponisation of neurosciences in China …38
Annex 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………41
Nation State Case Study 2: The Russian National Technology Initiative ………41

Executive Summary.

As written in the Warfighting 2040 Paper, the nature of warfare has changed. The majority of current conflicts remain below the threshold of the traditionally accepted definition of warfare, but new forms of warfare have emerged such as Cognitive Warfare (CW), while the human mind is now being considered as a new domain of war.
With the increasing role of technology and information overload, individual cognitive abilities will no longer be sufficient to ensure an informed and timely decision-making, leading to
the new concept of Cognitive Warfare, which has become a recurring term in military termi- nology in recent years.
Cognitive Warfare causes an insidious challenge. It disrupts the ordinary understandings and
reactions to events in a gradual and subtle way, but with significant harmful effects over time.
Cognitive warfare has universal reach, from the individual to states and multinational organi-sations. It feeds on the techniques of disinformation and propaganda aimed at psychologically exhausting the receptors of information. Everyone contributes to it, to varying degrees,
consciously or sub consciously and it provides invaluable knowledge on society, especially
open societies, such as those in the West. This knowledge can then be easily weaponised. It
offers NATO’s adversaries a means of bypassing the traditional battlefield with significant
strategic results, which may be utilised to radically transform Western societies.
The instruments of information warfare, along with the addition of “neuro-weapons” adds to
future technological perspectives, suggesting that the cognitive field will be one of tomorrow’s battlefields. This perspective is further strengthened in by the rapid advances of NBICs
(Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Sciences) and the
understanding of the brain. NATO’s adversaries are already investing heavily in these new
technologies.
NATO needs to anticipate advances in these technologies by raising the awareness on the true
potential of CW. Whatever the nature and object of warfare, it always comes down to a clash
of human wills, and therefore what defines victory will be the ability to impose a desired behaviour on a chosen audience. Actions undertaken in the five domains – air, land, sea, space
and cyber – are all executed in order to have an effect on the human domain. It is therefore
time for NATO to recognise the renewed importance of the sixth operational domain, namely
the Human Domain.
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Introduction
Individual and organisational cognitive capabilities will be of paramount importance because
of the speed and volume of information available in the modern battlespace. If modern technology holds the promise of improving human cognitive performance, it also holds the seeds
of serious threats for military organisations.
Because organisations are made up of human beings, human limitations and preferences ultimately affect organisational behaviour and decision-making processes. Military organisations are subject to the problem of limited rationality, but this constraint is often overlooked in
practice .

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In an environment permeated with technology and overloaded with information, managing
the cognitive abilities within military organisations will be key, while developing capabilities
to harm the cognitive abilities of opponents will be a necessity. In other words, NATO will
need to get the ability to safeguard her decision-making process and disrupt the adversary’s
one.
This study intends to respond to the three following questions:
• Improve awareness on Cognitive Warfare, including a better understanding of the
risks and opportunities of new Cognitive / Human Mind technologies;
• Provide ‘out-of-the-box’ insight on Cognitive Warfare;
• And to provide strategic level arguments to SACT as to recommend, or not,
Cognitive / Human Mind as an Operational Domain.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 5 of 45 The advent of Cognitive Warfare
From Information Warfare to Cognitive Warfare Information warfare (IW) is the most related, and, thus, the most easily conflated, type of warfare with regards to cognitive warfare. However, there are key distinctions that make cognitive warfare unique enough to be addressed under its own jurisdiction. As a concept, IW was first coined and developed under US Military doctrine, and has subsequently been adopted in different forms by several nations.
As former US Navy Commander Stuart Green described it as, “Information operations, the closest

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existing American doctrinal concept for cognitive warfare, consists of five ‘core capabilities’, or elements. These include electronic warfare, computer network operations, PsyOps, military deception, and operational security.”
Succinctly, Information Warfare aims at controlling the flow of information. Information warfare has been designed primarily to support objectives defined by the traditional mission of military organisations – namely, to produce lethal kinetic effects on the battlefield. It was not designed to achieve lasting political successes.
As defined by Clint Watts, cognitive Warfare opposes the capacities to know and to produce,
it actively thwarts knowledge. Cognitive sciences cover all the sciences that concern knowledge and its processes (psychology, linguistics, neurobiology, logic and more).

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Cognitive Warfare degrades the capacity to know, produce or thwart knowledge. Cognitive
sciences cover all the sciences that concern knowledge and its processes (psychology, linguistics, neurobiology, logic and more).
Cognitive Warfare is therefore the way of using knowledge for a conflicting purpose. In its broadest sense, cognitive warfare is not limited to the military or institutional world. Since the early 1990s, this capability has tended to be applied to the political, economic, cultural and societal fields.
Any user of modern information technologies is a potential target. It targets the whole of a nation’s human capital.
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“Conflicts will increasingly depend on/and revolve around, information and communications— (…) Indeed, both cyberwar and netwar are modes of conflict that are largely about “knowledge”—about who knows what, when, where, and why, and about how secure a society”
John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt The Advent of Netwar, RAND, 1996

“Big Data allows us to develop fabulous calculation and analysis performances, but what makes it possible to respond to a situation is reason and reason is what enables to take a decision in what is not calculable, otherwise we only confirm the state of affairs.”
Bernard Stiegler
The most striking shift of this practice from the military, to the civilian, world is the perva siveness of CW activities across everyday life that sit outside the normal peace-crisis-conflict
construct (with harmful effects). Even if a cognitive war could be conducted to complement to
a military conflict, it can also be conducted alone, without any link to an engagement of the
armed forces. Moreover, cognitive warfare is potentially endless since there can be no peace
treaty or surrender for this type of conflict.
Evidence now exists that shows new CW tools & techniques target military personnel directly
, not only with classical information weapons but also with a constantly growing and rapidly
evolving arsenal of neuro-weapons, targeting the brain. It is important to recognise various
nations’ dedicated endeavours to develop non-kinetic operations, that target the Human with
effects at every level – from the individual level, up to the socio-political level.
Hacking the individual
The revolution in information technology has enabled cognitive manipulations of a new kind,
on an unprecedented and highly elaborate scale. All this happens at much lower cost than in
the past, when it was necessary to create effects and impact through non-virtual actions in the
physical realm. Thus, in a continuous process, classical military capabilities do not counter
cognitive warfare. Despite the military having difficulty in recognising the reality and effectiveness of the phenomena associated with cognitive warfare, the relevance of kinetic and resource-intensive means of warfare is nonetheless diminishing.
Social engineering always starts with a deep dive into the human environment of the target.
The goal is to understand the psychology of the targeted people. This phase is more important than any other as it allows not only the precise targeting of the right people but also to anticipate reactions, and to develop empathy. Understanding the human environment is the key to building the trust that will ultimately lead to the desired results. Humans are an easy target since theyall contribute by providing information on themselves, making the adversaries’ sockpuppets more powerful.

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In any case NATO’s adversaries focus on identifying the Alliance’s centres of gravity and vulnerabilities. They have long identified that the main vulnerability is the human. It is easy to
find these centres of gravity in open societies because they are reflected in the study of human
and social sciences such as political science, history, geography, biology, philosophy, voting
systems, public administration, international politics, international relations, religious studies,
education, sociology, arts and culture…
Cognitive Warfare is a war of ideologies that strives to erode the trust that underpins every
society.
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“Social engineering is the art and science of getting people to comply to your wishes. It is
not a way of mind control, it will not allow you to get people to perform tasks wildly outside of their normal behaviour and it isfar from foolproof”
Harl, People Hacking, 1997
Trust is the target
Cognitive warfare pursues the objective of undermining trust (public trust in electoral processes, trust in institutions, allies, politicians…). , therefore the individual becomes the

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weapon, while the goal is not to attack what individuals think but rather the way they think .

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It has the potential to unravel the entire social contract that underpins societies.
It is natural to trust the senses, to believe what is seen and read. But the democratisation of
automated tools and techniques using AI, no longer requiring a technological background,
enables anyone to distort information and to further undermine trust in open societies. The
use of fake news, deep fakes, Trojan horses, and digital avatars will create new suspicions
which anyone can exploit.
It is easier and cheaper for adversaries to undermine trust in our own systems than to attack
our power grids, factories or military compounds. Hence, it is likely that in the near future
there will be more attacks, from a growing and much more diverse number of potential players with a greater risk for escalation or miscalculation. The characteristics of cyberspace (lack
of regulation, difficulties and associated risks of attribution of attacks in particular) mean that
new actors, either state or non-state, are to be expected .

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As the example of COVID-19 shows, the massive amount of texts on the subject, including
deliberately biased texts (example is the Lancet study on chloroquine) created an information
and knowledge overload which, in turn, generates both a loss of credibility and a need for
closure. Therefore the ability for humans to question, normally, any data/information presented is hampered, with a tendency to fall back on biases to the detriment of unfettered decision making.
It applies to trust among individuals as well as groups, political alliances and societies.
“Trust, in particular among allies, is a targeted vulnerability. As any international institution does, NATO relies on trust between its partners. Trust is based not only on respecting
some explicit and tangible agreements, but also on ‘invisible contracts,’ on sharing values,
which is not easy when such a proportion of allied nations have been fighting each other for
centuries. This has left wounds and scars creating a cognitive/information landscape that our
adversaries study with great care. Their objective is to identify the ‘Cognitive Centers of
Gravity’ of the Alliance, which they will target with ‘info-weapons’.”

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Cognitive Warfare, a participatory propaganda

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In many ways, cognitive warfare can be compared to propaganda, which can be defined as “a
set of methods employed by an organised group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically unified through psychological manipulations and incorporated in an organisation.”

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The purpose of propaganda is not to “program” minds, but to influence attitudes and
behaviours by getting people to adopt the right attitude, which may consist of doing
certain things or, often, stopping doing them.
Cognitive Warfare is methodically exploited as a component of a global strategy by adversaries aimed at weakening, interfering and destabilising targeted populations, institutions and states, in order to influence their choices, to undermine the autonomy of their decisions and the sovereignty of their institutions. Such campaigns combine both real and distorted information (misinformation), exaggerated facts and fabricated news (disinformation).
Disinformation preys on the cognitive vulnerabilities of its targets by taking advantage of pre-existing anxieties or beliefs that predispose them to accept false information.
This requires the aggressor to have an acute understanding of the socio-political dynamics at play and to know exactly when and how to penetrate to best exploit these vulnerabilities.
Cognitive Warfare exploits the innate vulnerabilities of the human mind because of the way it is designed to process information, which have always been exploited in warfare, of course. However, due to the speed and pervasiveness of technology and information, the human mind is no longer able to process the flow of information.
Where CW differs from propaganda is in the fact that everyone participates, mostly inadvertently, to information processing and knowledge formation in an unprecedented way. This is
a subtle but significant change. While individuals were passively submitted to propaganda,
they now actively contribute to it.
The exploitation of human cognition has become a massive industry. And it is expected that
emerging artificial intelligence (AI) tools will soon provide propagandists radically enhanced
capabilities to manipulate human minds and change human behaviour .

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Behavioural economy
“Capitalism is undergoing a radical mutation. What many describe as the ‘data economy’ is
in fact better understood as a ‘behavioural economics’”.
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“New tools and techniques, combined with the changing technological and information
foundations of modern societies, are creating an unprecedented capacity to conduct virtual societal warfare.”
Michael J. Mazarr
“Modern propaganda is based on scientific analyses of psychology and sociology. Step
by step, the propagandist builds his techniques on the basis of his knowledge of man,
his tendencies, his desires, his needs, his psychic mechanisms, his conditioning — and
as much on social psychology as on depth psychology.”
Jacques Ellul, Propaganda, 1962
Behavioural economics (BE) is defined as a method of economic analysis that applies psychological insights into human behaviour to explain economic decision-making.
As research into decision-making shows, behaviour becomes increasingly computational, BE
is at the crossroad between hard science and soft science .

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Operationally, this means massive and methodical use of behavioural data and the development of methods to aggressively seek out new data sources. With the vast amount of (behavioural) data that everyone generates mostly without our consent and awareness, further manipulation is easily achievable.
The large digital economy companies have developed new data capture methods, allowing
the inference of personal information that users may not necessarily intend to disclose. The
excess data has become the basis for new prediction markets called targeted advertising.
“Here is the origin of surveillance capitalism in an unprecedented and lucrative brew: behavioural surplus, data science, material infrastructure, computational power, algorithmic systems, and automated platforms”, claims Soshanna Zuboff .

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In democratic societies, advertising has quickly become as important as research. It has finally
become the cornerstone of a new type of business that depends on large-scale online monitoring.
The target is the human being in the broadest sense and it is easy to divert the data obtained from just commercial purposes, as the Cambridge Analytica (CA) scandal demonstrated.
Thus, the lack of regulation of the digital space – the so-called “data swamp”- does not only benefit the digital-age regimes, which “can exert remarkable
control over not just computer networks and human bodies, but the minds of their citizens as
well” .

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It can also be utilised for malign purposes as the example of the CA scandal has shown.
CA digital model outlined how to combine personal data with machine learning for political
ends by profiling individual voters in order to target them with personalised political advertisements.
Using the most advanced survey and psychometrics techniques, Cambridge Analytica was
actually able to collect a vast amount of individuals’ data that helped them understand
through economics, demographics, social and behavioural information what each of them
thought. It literally provided the company a window into the minds of people.
The gigantic collection of data organised via digital technologies is today primarily used to
define and anticipate human behaviour. Behavioural knowledge is a strategic asset. “Behavioural economics adapts psychology research to economic models, thus creating more accurate representations of human interactions.”

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“Cambridge Analytica has demonstrated how it’s possible […] to leverage tools to build a
scaled-down version of the massive surveillance and manipulation machines”

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“Technology is going on unabatedand will continue to go on unabated.
[…] Because technology is going so fast and because people don’t understand it, there was always going to be a Cambridge Analytica.”
Julian Wheatland
Ex-Chief Operating Officer of
Cambridge Analytica
As shown by the example of Cambridge Analytica, one can weaponise such knowledge and
develop appropriate offensive and defensive capabilities, paving the way for virtual societal
warfare. A systematic use of BE methods applied to the military could lead to better under

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standing of how individuals and groups behave and think, eventually leading to a wider understanding of the decision-making environment of adversaries. There is a real risk that access to behavioural data utilising the tools and techniques of BE, as shown by the example of
Cambridge Analytica, could allow any malicious actor- whether state or non-state- to strategically harm open societies and their instruments of power.
Cyberpsychology
Assuming that technology affects everyone, studying and understanding human behaviour
in relation to technology is vital as the line between cyberspace and the real world is becoming blurry.
The exponentially increasing impact of cybernetics, digital technologies, and virtuality can
only be gauged when considered through their effects on societies, humans, and their respective behaviours.
Cyberpsychology is at the crossroads of two main fields: psychology and cybernetics. All this
is relevant to defense and security, and to all areas that matter to NATO as it prepares for
transformation. Centered on the clarification of the mechanisms of thought and on the conceptions, uses and limits of cybernetic systems, cyberpsychology is a key issue in the vast
field of Cognitive Sciences. The evolution of AI introduces new words, new concepts, but also
new theories that encompass a study of the natural functioning of humans and of the machines they have built and which, today, are fully integrated in their natural environment (anthropo-technical). Tomorrow’s human beings will have to invent a psychology of their relation to machines. But the challenge is to develop also a psychology of machines, artificial intelligent software or hybrid robots.
Cyber psychology is a complex scientific field that encompasses all psychological phenomena
associated with, or affected by relevant evolving technologies. Cyber psychology examines
the way humans and machines impact each other, and explores how the relationship between
humans and AI will change human interactions and inter-machine communication .

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Paradoxically, the development of information technology and its use for manipulative purposes in particular highlights the increasingly predominant role of the brain.
The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This organ is the seat of intelligence,
the interpreter of the senses, the initiator of body movements, the controller of behaviour and
the centre of decisions.
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The centrality of the human brain . For centuries, scientists and philosophers have been fascinated by the brain, but until recently they considered the brain to be almost incomprehensible. Today, however, the brain is beginning to reveal its secrets. Scientists have learned more about the brain in the past decade than in any previous century, thanks to the accelerating pace of research in the neurological and
behavioural sciences and the development of new research techniques. For the military, it represents the last frontier in science, in that it could bring a decisive advantage in tomorrow’s wars.
Understanding the brain is a key challenge for the future Substantial advances have been made in recent decades in understanding how the brain functions. While our decisionmaking processes remain centered on Human in particular with its capacity to orient (OODA loop), fed by data, analysis and visualisations, the inability of human to process, fuse and analyse the profusion of data in a timely manner calls for
humans to team with AI machines to compete with AI machines. In order to keep a balance between the human and the machine in the decision-making process, it becomes necessary to be aware of human limitations and vulnerabilities.
It all starts with understanding our cognition processes and the way our brain’s function.
Over the past two decades, cognitive science and neuroscience have taken a new step in the analysis and understanding of the human brain, and have opened up new perspectives in terms of brain research, if not indeed of a hybridisation, then of human and artificial intelligence. They have mainly made a major contribution to the study of the diversity of neuro-psychic mechanisms facilitating learning and, as a result, have, for example, challenged the intuition of “multiple intelligences”. No one today can any longer ignore the fact that the brain is both the seat of emotions the interactive mechanisms of memorisation, information processing, problem solving and decision-making.
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Cognitive Science
Discipline associating psychology, sociology, linguistics, artificial intelligence and neurosciences, and having for object the explicitation of the mechanisms of thought and information processing mobilised for the acquisition, conservation, use and transmission of knowledge.
Neuroscience
Trans-disciplinary scientific discipline associating biology, mathematics, computer science, etc., with the aim of studying the organisation and functioning of the nervous system, from the point of view of both its structure and its functioning, from the molecular scale down to the level of the organs.
The vulnerabilities of the human brain “In the cognitive war, it’s more important than ever to know thyself.”

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Humans have developed adaptations to cope with cognitive limitations allowing more effcient processing of information. Unfortunately, these same shortcuts introduce distortions in our thinking and communication, making communication efforts ineffective and subject to manipulation by adversaries seeking to mislead or confuse. These cognitive biases can lead to inaccurate judgments and poor decision making that could trigger an unintended escalation or prevent the timely identification of threats. Understanding the sources and types of cognitive biases can help reduce misunderstandings and inform the development of better strategies to respond to opponents’ attempts to use these biases to their advantage.


In particular, the brain:

  • is unable to distinct whether particular information is right or wrong;
  • Is led to take shortcuts in determining the trustworthiness of messages in case of information overload;
  • is led to believe statements or messages that its already heard as true, even though these
    may be false;
  • accepts statements as true, if backed by evidence, with no regards to the authenticity of the
    that evidence.
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    Those are, among many others, the cognitive bias, defined as a systematic pattern of deviation
    from norm or rationality in judgment.
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    There are many different cognitive biases inherently stemming from the human brain. Most
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    of them are relevant to the information environment. Probably the most common and most
    damaging cognitive bias is the confirmation bias. This is the effect that leads people to look
    for evidence that confirms what they already think or suspect, to regard facts and ideas they
    encounter as further confirmation, and to dismiss or ignore any evidence that seems to support another point of view. In other words, “people see what they want to see” .
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    Cognitive biases effect everyone, from soldiers on the ground to staff officers, and to a greater
    extent than everyone admits.
    It is not only important to recognise it in ourselves, but to study the biases of adversaries to
    understand how they behave and interact.
    As stated by Robert P. Kozloski, “The importance of truly “knowing yourself” cannot be understated. Advances in computing technology, particularly machine learning, provide the military with the opportunity to know itself like never before. Collecting and analysing the data
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    generated in virtual environments will enable military organisations to understand the cognitive performance of individuals.”
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    Ultimately, operational advantages in cognitive warfare will first come from the improvement
    of understanding of military cognitive abilities and limitations.
    The role of emotions
    In the digital realm, what allows the digital industries and their customers (and notably advertisers) to distinguish individuals in the crowd, to refine personalisation and behavioural analysis, are emotions. Every social media platform, every website is designed to be addictive and to trigger some emotional bursts, trapping the brain in a cycle of posts. The speed, emotional intensity, and echo-chamber qualities of social media content cause those exposed to it to experience more extreme reactions. Social media is particularly well suited to worsening political and social polarisation because of their ability to disseminate violent images and scary rumours very quickly and intensely. “The more the anger spreads, the more Internet users are susceptible to becoming a troll.”
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    At the political and strategic level, it would be wrong to underestimate the impact of emotions. Dominique Moïsi showed in his book “The Geopolitics of Emotion” , how emotions –
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    hope, fear and humiliation – were shaping the world and international relations with the
    echo-chamber effect of the social media. For example, it seems important to integrate into
    theoretical studies on terrorist phenomena the role of emotions leading to a violent and/or a
    terrorist path.
    By limiting cognitive abilities, emotions also play a role in decision-making, performance, and
    overall well-being, and it’s impossible to stop people from experiencing them. “In the face of
    violence, the very first obstacle you will have to face will not be your abuser, but your own
    reactions.”
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    The battle for attention
    Never have knowledge and information been so accessible, so abundant, and so shareable.
    Gaining attention means not only building a privileged relationship with our interlocutors to
    better communicate and persuade, but it also means preventing competitors from getting that
    attention, be it political, economic, social or even in our personal life. This battlefield is global via the internet. With no beginning and no end, this conquest knows no respite, punctuated by notifications from our smartphones, anywhere, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
    Coined in 1996 by Professor B.J. Fogg from Stanford University,
    “captology” is defined as the science of using “computers as technologies of persuasion”.
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    “We are competing with
    sleep”
    Reed Hastings
    CEO of Netflix
    The time has therefore come to adopt the rules of this “attention economy”, to master the
    technologies related to “captology”, to understand how these challenges are completely new.
    Indeed, this battle is not limited to screens and design, it also takes place in brains, especially
    in the way they are misled. It is also a question of understanding why, in the age of social
    networks, some “fake news”, conspiracy theories or “alternative facts”, seduce and convince,
    while at the same time rendering their victims inaudible.
    Attention on the contrary is a limited and increasingly scarce resource. It cannot be shared: it
    can be conquered and kept. The battle for attention is now at work, involving companies, states and citizens.
    The issues at stake now go far beyond the framework of pedagogy, ethics and screen addiction. The consumption environment, especially marketing, is leading the way. Marketers have
    long understood that the seat of attention and decision making is the brain and as such have
    long sought to understand, anticipate its choices and influence it.
    This approach naturally applies just as well to military affairs and adversaries have already
    understood this.
    Long-term impacts of technology on the brain
    As Dr. James Giordano claims, “the brain will the battlefield of the 21st century”.
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    And when it comes to shaping the brain, the technological environment plays a key role.
    The brain has only one chance to develop. Damage to the brain is very often irreversible. Understanding and protecting our brains from external aggression, of all kinds, will be one of
    the major challenges of the future.
    According to the neuroscientist Maryanne Wolf, humans were not meant to read and the invention of printing changed the shape of our brains . It took years, if not centuries, to assess
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    the consequences – social, political or sociological for example – of the invention of printing. It
    will likely take longer before understanding accurately the long-term consequences of the
    digital age but one thing everyone agrees on is that the human brain is changing today faster
    than ever before with the pervasiveness of digital technology.
    There is a growing amount of research that explores how technology affects the brain. Studies
    show that exposure to technology shapes the cognitive processes and the ability to take in information. One of the major findings is the advent of a society of ‘cognitive offloaders’, meaning that no one memorises important information any longer. Instead, the brain tends to remember the location where they retrieved when it is next required. With information and visual overload, the brain tends to scan information and pick out what appears to be important
    with no regard to the rest.
    One of the evolutions already noticed is the loss of critical thinking directly related to screen
    reading and the increasing inability to read a real book. The way information is processed affects brain development, leading to neglect of the sophisticated thought processes. Brains will
    thus be different tomorrow. It is therefore highly probable that our brains will be radically
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    transformed in an extremely short period, but it is also likely that this change will come at the
    expense of more sophisticated, more complex thinking processes necessary for critical analysis.
    In an era where memory is outsourced to Google, GPS, calendar alerts and calculators, it will
    necessarily produce a generalised loss of knowledge that is not just memory, but rather motor
    memory. In other words, a long-term process of disabling connections in your brain
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  • is ongoing. It will present both vulnerabilities and opportunities.
    However, there is also plenty of research showing the benefits of technology on our cognitive
    functions. For example, a Princeton University study found that expert video gamers have a
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    higher ability to process data, to make decisions faster or even to achieve simultaneous multitasks in comparison to non-gamers. There is a general consensus among neuroscientists that a
    reasoned use of information technology (and particularly games) is beneficial to the brain.
    By further blurring the line between the real and the virtual, the development of technologies
    such as Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) or Mixed Reality (MR) has the potential
    to transform the brain’s abilities even more radically . Behaviours in virtual environments
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    can continue to influence real behaviour long after exiting VR.
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    Yet, virtual environments offer the opportunity to efficiently complement live training since it
    can provide cognitive experience that a live exercise cannot replicate. While there are concerns and research on how digital media are harming developing minds, it is still difficult to predict how the technology will affect and change the brain, but with the ubiquity of IT, it will become increasingly crucial to carefully detect and anticipate the impacts of information technology on the brain and to adapt the use of information technology.
    In the long-term, there is little doubt that Information Technologies will transform the brain,
    thus providing more opportunities to learn and to apprehend the cyber environment but also
    vulnerabilities that will require closely monitoring in order to counter and defend against
    them and how to best exploit them.
    The promises of neurosciences
    “Social neuroscience holds the promise of understanding people’s thoughts, emotions and
    intentions through the mere observation of their biology.”
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    Should scientists be able to establish a close and precise correspondence between biological
    functions on the one hand and social cognitions and behaviours on the other hand, neuroscientific methods could have tremendous applications for many disciplines and for our society
    in general. It includes decision-making, exchanges, physical and mental health care, prevention, jurisprudence, and more.
    This highlights how far neurosciences occupies a growing place in medical and scientific
    research. More than just a discipline, they articulate a set of fields related to the knowledge of
    the brain and nervous system and question the complex relationships between man and his
    Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 17 of 45
    environment and fellow human beings. From biomedical research to cognitive sciences, the
    actors, approaches and organisations that structure neuroscience are diverse.
    Often convergent, they can also be competitive.
    While the discoveries and challenges of the neurosciences are relatively well known, this field
    raises both hope and concern. In a disorganised and, at times, ill-informed way,
    “neuroscience” seems to be everywhere. Integrated, sometimes indiscriminately, in many
    debates, they are mobilised around the issues of society and public health, education, aging,
    and nourish the hopes of an augmented man.

Today, the manipulation of our perception, thoughts and behaviours is taking place on
previously unimaginable scales of time, space and intentionality. That, precisely, is the source
of one of the greatest vulnerabilities that every individual must learn to deal with. Many
actors are likely to exploit these vulnerabilities, while the evolution of technology for
producing and disseminating information is increasingly fast. At the same time, as the cost of
technology steadily drops, more actors enter the scene.
As the technology evolves, so do the vulnerabilities.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 18 of 45
The militarisation of brain science
Scientists around the world are asking the question of how to free humanity from the limitations of the body. The line between healing and augmentation becomes blurred. In addition,
the logical progression of research is to achieve a perfect human being through new technological standards.
In the wake of the U.S. Brain Initiative initiated in 2014, all the major powers (EU/China/
Russia) have launched their own brain research programs with substantial fundings. China
sees the brain “as the HQ of the Human body and precisely attacking the HQ is one of the
most effective strategies for determining victory or defeat on the battlefield” .

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The revolution in NBIC (Nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science) including advances in genomics, has the potential for dual-use technology development. A wide range of military applications such as improving the performance of soldiers, developing new weapons such as directed energy weapons are already discussed.
Progress and Viability of Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T)
Neuroscience employs a variety of methods and technologies to evaluate and influence neurologic substrates and processes of cognition, emotion, and behaviour. In general, brain science can be either basic or applied research. Basic research focuses upon obtaining knowledge and furthering understanding of structures and functions of the nervous system on a variety of levels by employing methods of the physical and natural sciences. Applied research seeks to develop translational approaches that can be directly utilised to understand and modify the physiology, psychology, and/or pathology of target organisms, including humans. Neuroscientific methods and technologies (neuroS/T) can be further categorised as those used to assess, and those used to affect the structures and functions of the nervous system, although these categories and actions are not mutually exclusive. For example, the use of certain drugs, toxins, and probes to elucidate functions of various sites of the central and peripheral nervous
system can also affect neural activity.
NeuroS/T is broadly considered a natural and/or life science and there is implicit and explicit
intent, if not expectation to develop and employ tools and outcomes of research in clinical
medicine. Neuroscientific techniques, technologies, and information could be used for medical as well as non-medical (educational, occupational, lifestyle, military, etc.) purposes .

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It is questionable whether the uses, performance enablements, and resulting capabilities could (or should) be used in intelligence and/or diplomatic operations to mitigate and subvert aggression, violence, and conflict. Of more focal concern are uses of research findings and products to directly facilitate the performance of combatants, the integration of human-machine interfaces to optimise combat capabilities of semi-autonomous vehicles (e.g., drones), and development of biological and chemical weapons (i.e., neuroweapons).
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Some NATO Nations have already acknowledged that neuroscientific techniques and technologies have high potential for operational use in a variety of security, defense and intelligence
enterprises, while recognising the need to address the current and short-term ethical, legal
and social issues generated by such use .

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Military and Intelligence Use of NeuroS/T
The use of neuroS/T for military and intelligence purposes is realistic, and represents a clear
and present concern. In 2014, a US report asserted that neuroscience and technology had matured considerably and were being increasingly considered, and in some cases evaluated for operational use in security, intelligence, and defense operations. More broadly, the iterativerecognition of the viability of neuroscience and technology in these agenda reflects the paceand breadth of developments in the field. Although a number of nations have pursued, andare currently pursuing neuroscientific research and development for military purposes, perhaps the most proactive efforts in this regard have been conducted by the United States Department of Defense; with most notable and rapidly maturing research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). To be sure, many DARPA projects are explicitly directed toward advancing neuropsychiatric treatments and interventions that will improve both military and civilian medicine. Yet, it is important to note the prominent ongoing –and expanding – efforts in this domain by NATO European and trans-Pacific strategic competitor nations.
As the 2008 National Research Council report stated, “… for good or for ill, an ability to better

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understand the capabilities of the body and brain… could be exploited for gathering intelligence, military operations, information management, public safety and forensics”. To paraphrase Aristotle, every human activity and tool can be regarded as purposed toward somedefinable “good”. However, definitions of “good” may vary, and what is regarded as good for some may present harm to others. The potential for neuroS/T to afford insight, understanding, and capability to affect cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of individuals and groups render the brain sciences particularly attractive for use in security, intelligence, and military/warfare initiatives.
To approach this issue, it is important to establish four fundamental premises.
• Firstly, neuroS/T is, and will be increasingly and more widely incorporated into approaches to national security, intelligence gathering and analysis, and aspects of military operations;
• Secondly, such capabilities afford considerable power;
• Thirdly, many countries are actively developing and subsidising neuro S/T research
under dual-use agendas or for direct incorporation into military programs;
• Fourthly, these international efforts could lead to a “capabilities race” as nations react
to new developments by attempting to counter and/or improve upon one another’s
discoveries.
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This type of escalation represents a realistic possibility with potential to affect international
security. Such “brinksmanship” must be acknowledged as a potential impediment to attempts to develop analyses and guidelines (that inform or prompt policies) that seek to constrain or restrict these avenues of research and development.
Neuroscientific techniques and technologies that are being utilised for military efforts include:

  • Neural systems modelling and human/brain-machine interactive networks in intelligence, training and operational systems;
  • Neuroscientific and neurotechnological approaches to optimising performance and
    resilience in combat and military support personnel;
  • Direct weaponisation of neuroscience and neurotechnology.
    Of note is that each and all may contribute to establishing a role for brain science on the 21st
    century battlescape.
    Direct Weaponisation of NeuroS/T
    The formal definition of a weapon as “a means of contending against others” can be extended
    to include any implement “…used to injure, defeat, or destroy”. Both definitions apply to
    products of neuroS/T research that can be employed in military/warfare scenarios. The objectives for neuroweapons in warfare may be achieved by augmenting or degrading functions of the nervous system, so as to affect cognitive, emotional and/or motor activity and capability (e.g., perception, judgment, morale, pain tolerance, or physical abilities and stamina) necessary for combat. Many technologies can be used to produce these effects, and there is demonstrated utility for neuroweapons in both conventional and irregular warfare scenarios. At present, outcomes and products of computational neuroscience and neuropharmacologic research could be used for more indirect applications, such as enabling human efforts by simulating, interacting with, and optimising brain functions, and the classification and detection of human cognitive, emotional, and motivational states to augment intelligence or counterintelligence tactics. Human/brain-machine interfacing neurotechnologies capable of optimising data assimilation and interpretation systems by mediating access to – and manipulation of – signal detection, processing, and/or integration are being explored for their potential to delimit “human weak links” in the intelligence chain.
    The weaponised use of neuroscientific tools and products is not new. Historically, such
    weapons which include nerve gas and various drugs, pharmacologic stimulants (e.g., amphetamines), sedatives, sensory stimuli, have been applied as neuroweapons to incapacitate the enemy, and even sleep deprivation and distribution of emotionally provocative information in psychological operations (i.e., PSYOPS) could rightly be regarded as forms of weaponised applications of neuroscientific and neurocognitive research.
    Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 21 of 45
    Products of neuroscientific and neurotechnological research can be utilised to affect
    1) memory, learning, and cognitive speed;
    2) wake-sleep cycles, fatigue and alertness;
    3) impulse control;
    4) mood, anxiety, and self-perception;
    5) decision-making;
    6) trust and empathy;
    7) and movement and performance (e.g., speed, strength, stamina, motor learning, etc.).
    In military/warfare settings, modifying these functions can be utilised to mitigate aggression
    and foster cognitions and emotions of affiliation or passivity; induce morbidity, disability or
    suffering; and “neutralise” potential opponents or incur mortality.
    Neurodata
    The combination of multiple disciplines (e.g., the physical, social, and computational sciences), and intentional “technique and technology sharing” have been critical to rapid and numerous discoveries and developments in the brain sciences. This process, advanced integrative scientific convergence (AISC), can be seen as a paradigm for de-siloing disciplines toward fostering innovative use of diverse and complementary knowledge-, skill-, and tool-sets to both de-limit existing approaches to problem resolution; and to develop novel means ofexploring and furthering the boundaries of understanding and capability. Essential to theAISC approach in neuroscience is the use of computational (i.e., big data) methods and advancements to enable deepened insight and more sophisticated intervention to the structureand function(s) of the brain, and by extension, human cognition, emotion, and behaviour .
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    Such capacities in both computational and brain sciences have implications for biosecurity
    and defense initiatives. Several neurotechnologies can be employed kinetically (i.e., providing
    means to injure, defeat, or destroy adversaries) or non-kinetically (i.e., providing “means of
    contending against others,” especially in disruptive ways) engagements. While many types of
    neuroS/T have been addressed in and by extant forums, treaties, conventions, and laws, other
    newer techniques and technologies – inclusive of neurodata – have not. In this context, the
    term “neurodata” refers to the accumulation of large volumes of information; handling of
    large scale and often diverse informational sets; and new methods of data visualisation, assimilation, comparison, syntheses, and analyses. Such information can be used to:
    • more finely elucidate the structure and function of human brain;
    • and develop data repositories that can serve as descriptive or predictive metrics for
    neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Purloining and/or modifying such information could affect military and intelligence readiness, force conservation, and mission capability, and thus national security. Manipulation of
    both civilian and military neurodata would affect the type of medical care that is (or is not)
    Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 22 of 45
    provided, could influence the ways that individuals are socially regarded and treated, and in
    these ways disrupt public health and incur socio-economic change. As the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed, public – and institutional public health – responses to novel pathogens are highly variable at best, chaotic at worst, and indubitablycostly (on many levels) in either case. To be sure, such extant gaps in public health and safetyinfrastructures and functions could be exploited by employing “precision pathologies” (capable of selectively affecting specific targets such as individuals, communities;, domestic animals, livestock, etc.) and an aggressive program of misinformation to incur disruptive effects on social, economic, political, and military scales that would threaten national stability andsecurity. Recent elucidation of the Chinese government’s Overseas Key Individuals Database(OKIDB), which, via collaboration with a corporate entity, Shenzhen Zhenua Data Technology, has amassed data to afford “insights into foreign political, military, and diplomatic figures…containing information on more than 2 million people…and tens of thousands whohold prominent public positions…” that could be engaged by “Beijing’s army of cyberhackers”.
    Digital biosecurity – a term that describes the intersection of computational systems and biological information and how to effectively prevent or mitigate current and emerging risk arising at this intersection – becomes ever more important and required. The convergence of neurobiology and computational capabilities, while facilitating beneficial advances in brain research and its translational applications, creates a vulnerable strategic asset that will besought by adversaries to advance their own goals for neuroscience. Hacking of biological data within the academic, industry, and the health care systems has already occurred – and neurodata are embedded within all of these domains.
    Thus, it is likely that there will be more direct attempts at harnessing neurodata to gain leverageable informational, social, legal, and military capability and power advantage(s), as several countries that are currently strategically competitive with the U.S. and its allies invest heavily in both neuro- and cyber-scientific research programs and infrastructure. The growing fortitude of these states’ quantitative and economic presence in these fields can – and is intended to – shift international leadership, hegemony, and influence ethical, technical, commercial and politico-military norms and standards of research and use. For example, Russian leadership has declared interest in the employment of “genetic passports” such that those in the military who display genetic indications of high cognitive performance can be directed to particularmilitary tasks.
    The neurobioeconomy
    Advancements in neuroS/T have contributed to much growth in the neuro-bioeconomy. With
    neurological disorders being the second leading cause of death worldwide (with approximately 9 million deaths; constituting 16.5% of global fatalities), several countries have initiated programs in brain research and innovation.
    These initiatives aim to:
    Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 23 of 45
    1) advance understanding of substrates and mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders;
    2) improve knowledge of processes of cognition, emotion, and behaviour;
    3) and augment the methods for studying, assessing, and affecting the brain and its
    functions.
    New research efforts incorporate best practices for interdisciplinary approaches that can
    utilise advances in computer science, robotics, and artificial intelligence to fortify the scope
    and pace of neuroscientific capabilities and products. Such research efforts are strong drivers
    of innovation and development, both by organising larger research goals, and by shaping
    neuroS/T research to meet defined economic, public health, and security agendas.
    Rapid advances in brain science represent an emerging domain that state and non-state actors
    can leverage in warfare. While not all brain sciences engender security concerns, predominant
    authority and influence in global biomedical, bioengineering, wellness/lifestyle, and defense
    markets enable a considerable exercise of power. It is equally important to note that such
    power can be exercised both non-kinetic and kinetic operational domains, and several countries have identified neuroS/T as viable, of value, and of utility in their warfare programs.
    While extant treaties (e.g., the BTWC and CWC40) and laws have addressed particular products of the brain sciences (e.g., chemicals, biological agents, and toxins), other forms of neuroS/T, (e.g., neurotechnologies and neuroinformatics) remain outside these conventions’ focus, scope, and governance. Technology can influence, if not shape the norms and conduct of warfare, and the future battlefield will depend not only upon achieving “biological dominance”, but achieving “mental/cognitive dominance” and “intelligence dominance” as well.
    It will be ever more difficult to regulate and restrict military and security applications of neuroS/T without established standards and proper international oversight of research and potential use-in-practice.
  • * * *. *
    In sum, it is not a question of whether neuro S/T will be utilised in military, intelligence, and
    political operations, but rather when, how, to what extent, and perhaps most importantly, if
    NATO nations will be prepared to address, meet, counter, or prevent these risks and threats.
    In this light (and based upon the information presented) it is, and will be increasingly important to address the complex issues generated by the brain sciences’ influence upon global
    biosecurity and the near-term future scope and conduct of both non-kinetic and kinetic military and intelligence operations.41
    Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 24 of 45
    Towards a new operational domain
    The advent of the concept of “cognitive warfare” (CW) brings a third major combat dimension
    to the modern battlefield: to the physical and informational dimensions is now added a cognitive dimension. It creates a new space of competition, beyond the land, maritime, air, cybernetic and spatial domains, which adversaries have already integrated. In a world permeated with technology, warfare in the cognitive domain mobilises a wider range of battle spaces than the physical and informational dimensions can do. Its very essence is to seize control of human beings (civilian as well as military), organisations, nations, butalso of ideas, psychology, especially behavioural, thoughts, as well as the environment. In addition, rapid advances in brain science, as part of a broadly defined cognitive warfare, have
  • the potential to greatly expand traditional conflicts and produce effects at lower cost.
    Through the joint action it exerts on the 3 dimensions (physical, informational and cognitive),
    cognitive warfare embodies the idea of combat without fighting dear to Sun Tzu (“The
    supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting”). It therefore requires the mobilisation of a much broader knowledge. Future conflicts will likely occur amongst the people digitally first and physically thereafter in proximity to hubs of political and economic power.
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    The study of the cognitive domain, thus centred on the human being, constitutes a new major
    challenge that is indispensable to any strategy relating to the combat power generation of the
    future.
    Cognition is our “thinking machine”. The function of cognition is to perceive, to pay attention, to memorise, to reason, to produce movements, to express oneself, to decide. To act on
    cognition means to act on the human being.
    Therefore, defining a cognitive domain would be too restrictive; a human domain would
    therefore be more appropriate.
    While actions taken in the five domains are executed in order to have an effect on the human
    domain , cognitive warfare’s objective is to make everyone a weapon.
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    To turn the situation around, NATO must strive to define in a very broad sense and must
    have a clear awareness of the meanings and advances of international actors providing NATO
    with specific strategic security and broader challenges in the field of cognitive warfare.
    Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 25 of 45
    Russian and Chinese Cognitive Warfare Definition
    Russian Reflexive Control
    In 2012, Vladimir Karyakin added: “The advent of information and network technologies,
    coupled with advances in psychology regarding the study of human behaviour and the control of people’s motivations, make it possible to exert a specified effect on large social groups
    but [also] to also reshape the consciousness of entire peoples.”
  • 44
    Russian CW falls under the definition of the Reflexive Control Doctrine. It is an integrated
    operation that compels an adversary decision maker to act in favour of Russia by altering
    their perception of the world .
  • 45
    This goes beyond “pure deception” because it uses multiple inputs to the decision maker using both true and false information, ultimately aiming to make the target feel that the decision
    to change their behaviour was their own:
  • The Reflexive Control is ultimately aimed at the target’s decision making.
  • The information transmitted must be directed towards a decision or position.
  • The information must be adapted to the logic, culture, psychology and emotions of the
    target.
    The reflexive control has been turned into a broader concept taking into account the
    opportunities offered by new IT technologies called ‘Perception Management’. It is about
    controlling perception and not managing perception.
    The Russian CW is based on an in-depth understanding of human targets thanks to the study
    of sociology, history, psychology, etc. of the target and the extensive use of information
    technology.
    As shown in Ukraine, Russia used her in-depth knowledge as a precursor and gained a
    strategic advantage before the physical conflict.
    Russia has prioritised Cognitive Warfare as a precursor to the military phase.

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China Cognitive Warfare Domain
China has adopted an even broader definition of CW that includes the systematic
utilisation of cognitive science and biotechnology to achieve the “mind superiority.”
China has defined the Cognitive Domain of Operations as the battlefield for conducting
ideological penetration (…) aiming at destroying troop morale and cohesion, as well as
forming or deconstructing operational capabilities”
It encompasses six technologies, divided across two categories (Cognition, which includes
technologies that affect someone’s ability to think and function; and subliminal cognition that
covers technologies that target a person’s underlying emotions, knowledge, willpower and
beliefs).
In particular, “Chinese innovation is poised to pursue synergies among brain science, artificial
intelligence (AI), and biotechnology that may have far-reaching implications for its future
military power and aggregate national competitiveness.”

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The goal of cognitive operations is to achieve the “mind superiority” by using information to
influence an adversary’s cognitive functions,
spanning from peacetime public opinion to
wartime decision-making.

47
Chinese strategists predict that the pace and
complexity of operations will increase dramatically, as the form or character of warfare continues to evolve. As a result, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) strategists are concerned about the intense cognitive challenges that future commanders will face, especially considering the importance of optimising coordination and human-machine fusion or integration. These trends have necessarily increased the PLA’s interest in the military relevance not only of artificial intelligence, but also of brain science and new directions in interdisciplinary biological technologies, ranging from biosensing and biomaterials to human
enhancement options. The shift from computerisation to intelligentisation is seen as requiring
the improvement of human cognitive performance to keep pace with the complexity of warfare” .

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As part of its Cognitive Domain of Operations, China has defined “Military Brain Science
(MBS) as a cutting-edge innovative science that uses potential military application as the
guidance. It can bring a series of fundamental changes to the concept of combat and combat
methods, creating a whole new “brain war” combat style and redefining the battlefield.”49
The pursuit of advances in the field of MBS is likely to provide cutting edge advances to
China.The development of MBS by China benefits from a multidisciplinary approach
between human sciences, medicine, anthropology, psychology etc. and also benefits from
“civil” advances in the field, civilian research benefiting military research by design.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 27 of 45
“The sphere of operations will be expanded
from the physical domain and the information domain to the domain of consciousness,
the human brain will become a new combat
space.”
He Fuchu, “The Future Direction of the New Global Revolution in Military Affairs.
It’s about Humans
A cognitive attack is not a threat that can be countered in the air, on land, at sea, in cyberspace, or in space. Rather, it may well be happening in any or all of these domains, for onesimple reason: humans are the contested domain. As previously demonstrated, the human is very often the main vulnerability and it should be acknowledged in order to protect NATO’s human capital but also to be able to benefit from our adversaries’s vulnerabilities.
“Cognition is natively included in the Human Domain, thus a cognitive domain would be too restrictive”, claimed August Cole and Hervé Le Guyader in “NATO’s 6th domain” and:
“…the Human Domain is the one defining us as individuals and structuring our societies. It has its
own specific complexity compared to other domains, because of the large number of sciences it’s based
upon (…) and these are those our adversaries are focusing on to identify our centres of gravity, our
vulnerabilities.” .

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The practice of war shows that although physical domain warfare can weaken the military
capabilities of the enemy, it cannot achieve all the purposes of war. In the face of new contradictions and problems in ideology, religious belief and national identity, advanced weapons and technologies may be useless and their effects can even create new enemies. It is therefore difficult if not impossible to solve the problem of the cognitive domain by physical domain warfare alone.
The importance of the Human Environment The Human Domain is not solely focusing of the military human capital. It encompasses the human capital of a theatre of operations as a whole (civilian populations, ethnic groups, leaders…), but also the concepts closely related to humans such as leadership, organisation, decision-making processes, perceptions and behaviour. Eventually the desired effect should be defined within the Human Domain (aka the desired behaviour we want to achieve: collaboration/ cooperation, competition, conflict).
“To win (the future) war, the military must be culturally knowledgeable enough to thrive in
an alien environment” .

51
In the 21st century, strategic advantage will come from how to engage with people, understand them, and access political, economic, cultural and social networks to achieve a position of relative advantage that complements the sole military force. These interactions are not reducible to the physical boundaries of land, air, sea, cyber and space, which tend to focus on geography and terrain characteristics. They represent a network of networks that define power and interests in a connected world. The actor that best understands local contexts and builds a network around relationships that harness local capabilities is more likely to win.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 28 of 45
“Victory will be defined more in terms of capturing the psycho-cultural rather than the geographical high
ground. Understanding and empathy will be important weapons of war.”
Maj. Gen. Robert H. Scales
For the historian Alan Beyerchen, social sciences will be the amplifier of the 21st century’s
wars.

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In the past wars, the problem was that the human factor could not be a significant amplifier
simply because its influence was limited and difficult to exploit; humans were considered
more as constants than as variables. Certainly, soldiers could be improved through training,
selection, psychological adaptation and, more recently, education. But in the end, the human
factor was reduced to numbers. The larger the army, the greater the chance of winning the
war, although the action of a great strategist could counterbalance this argument. Tomorrow,
to have better soldiers and more effective humans will be key.
Last, the recent developments in science, all kinds of science, including science related to the
human domain, have empowered anyone, whether individuals or committed minorities, with
potential devastating power at their disposal. It has created a situation never seen before in
the history of mankind , where individuals or small groups may jeopardise the success of 53
military operations.
The crucible of Data Sciences and Human Sciences The combination of Social Sciences and System Engineering will be key in helping military analysts to improve the production of intelligence for the sake of decision-making .

54
The Human Domain of Operations refers to the whole human environment, whether friend of
foe. In a digital age it is equally important to understand first NATO’s own human strengths
and vulnerabilities before the ones of adversaries.
Since everyone is much more vulnerable than before everyone needs to acknowledge that one
may endanger the security of the overall. Hence, a deep understanding of the adversary’s
human capital (i.e. the human environment of the military operation) will be more crucial
than ever.
“If kinetic power cannot defeat the enemy, (…) psychology and related behavioural and social
sciences stand to fill the void.55”
“Achieving the strategic outcomes of war will necessarily go through expanding the dialogue
around the social sciences of warfare alongside the “physical sciences” of warfare..(…) it will
go through understanding, influence or exercise control within the “human domain”.

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Leveraging social sciences will be central to the development of the Human Domain Plan of
Operations. It will support the combat operations by providing potential courses of action for
the whole surrounding Human Environment including enemy forces, but also determining
key human elements such as the Cognitive center of gravity, the desired behaviour as the end
state. Understanding the target’s goals, strengths, and vulnerabilities is paramount to an operation for enduring strategic outcomes.
The deeper the understanding of the human environment, the greater will be the freedom of
action and relative advantage.
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Psychology and social sciences have always been essential to warfare, and while warfare is
moving away from kinetic operations, they might be the new game changer. Psychology, for
instance, can help to understand the personal motives of terrorist groups and the social dynamics that make them so attractive to the (mostly) young men who join their ranks.
As an example, the picture below depicts a methodology (called Weber) applied to the study
of terrorist groups in Sahel. It combines Social Sciences and System Engineering in order to
help predicting the behaviours of terrorist groups. The tool allows the decision-makers to assess the evolution of actors through behavioural patterns according to several criteria and social science parameters, and ultimately to anticipate courses of action.

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The analysis, turned towards understanding the other in the broad sense (and often nonWestern), cannot do without anthropology. Social and cultural anthropology is a formidable
tool for the analyst, the best way to avoid yielding to one of the most common biases of intelligence, ethnocentrism, i.e. the inability to get rid of mental structures and representations of
one’s own cultural environment.
Cognitive sciences can be leveraged to enhance training at every level, especially in order to
improve the ability to make decisions in complex tactical situations. Cognitive sciences can be
employed in the creation of highly efficient and flexible training programs that can respond to
fast-changing problems.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 30 of 45
Legal and ethical aspects
Legal aspects
The development, production and use of Cognitive Technologies for military purposes raise
questions as to whether, and to what extent, existing legal instruments apply. That is, how the
relevant provisions are to be interpreted and applied in light of the specific technological
characteristics and to what extent international law can sufficiently respond to the legal challenges involved with the advent of such technology.
It is essential to ensure that international law and accepted norms will be able to take into account the development of cognitive technologies. Specifically, to ensure that such technologies are capable of being used in accordance with applicable law and accepted international norms. NATO, through its various apparatus, should work at establishing a common understanding of how cognitive weapons might be employed to be compliant with the law and accepted international norms.
Equally, NATO should consider how the Law of Armed Conflict (LoAC) would apply to the
use of cognitive technologies in any armed conflict in order to ensure that any future development has a framework from which to work within. Full compliance with the rules and principles of LoAC is essential.
Given the complexity and contextual nature of the potential legal issues raised by Cognitive
technologies and techniques, and the constraints associated with this NATO sponsored study,
further work will be required to analyse this issue fully. Therefore, it is recommended that
such work be conducted by an appropriate body and that NATO Nations collaborate in establishing a set of norms and expectations about the use and development of Cognitive technologies. The immediate focus being how they might be used within extant legal frameworks and the Law of Armed Conflict.
Ethics
This area of research – human enhancement and cognitive weapons – is likely to be the subject
of major ethical and legal challenges, but we cannot afford to be on the back foot when international actors are already developing strategies and capabilities to employ them. There is a need to consider these challenges as there is not only the possibility that these human enhancement technologies are deliberately used for malicious purposes, but there may be implications for the ability of military personnel to respect the law of armed conflict.
It is equally important to recognise the potential side effects (such as speech impairment, memory impairment, increased aggression, depression and suicide) of these technologies. For example, if any cognitive enhancement technology were to undermine the capacity of a subject to comply with the law of armed conflict, it would be a source of very serious concern.
The development, and use of, cognitive technologies present numerous ethical challenges as
well as ethical benefits, such as recovery from Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Policy
makers should take these challenges seriously as they develop policy about Cognitive Technologies, explore issues in greater depth and determine if other ethical issues may arise as this, and other related, technology develops.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 31 of 45
Recommendations for NATO
The need for cooperation.While the objective of Cognitive Warfare is to harm societies and not only the military, this type of warfare resembles to “shadow wars” and requires a whole-of-government approach
to warfare. As previously stated, the modern concept of war is not about weapons but about
influence. To shape perceptions and control the narrative during this type of war, battle will have to be fought in the cognitive domain with a whole-of-government approach at the national level. This will require improved coordination between the use of force and the other levers of power across government. This could mean changes to how defence is resourced, equipped, and organised in order to offer military options below the threshold of armed conflict and improve the military contribution to resilience.
For NATO, the development of actions in the cognitive domain also requires a sustained cooperation between Allies in order to ensure an overall coherence, to build credibility and to allow a concerted defense.
Within the military, expertise on anthropology, ethnography, history, psychology among other
areas will be more than ever required to cooperate with the military, in order to derive qualitative insights from quantitative data, as an example. In other words, if the declaration of a new field of combat consecrates the new importance of humans, it is more about rethinking
the interaction between the hard sciences and the social sciences. The rise of cognitive technologies has endowed human with superior analysis and accuracy. In order to deliver timely
and robust decisions, it will not be a question of relying solely on human cognitive capacities
but of cross engineering systems with social sciences (sociology, anthropology, criminology,
political science…) in order to face complex and multifaceted situations. The modelisation of
human dynamics as part of what is known as Computational Social Science will allow the use
of knowledge from social sciences and relating to the behaviour of social entities, whether enemies or allies. By mapping the human environment, strategists and key military leaders will
be provided reliable information to decide on the right strategy.
Definition of the Human Domain
Thus defined by NATO’s major adversaries, the mastery of the field of perceptions is an abstract space where understanding of oneself (strengths and weaknesses), of the other (adversary, enemy, human environment), psychological dimension, intelligence collection, search for
ascendancy (influence, taking and conservation of the initiative) and capacity to reduce the
will of the adversary are mixed.
Within the context of multi-domain operations, the human domain is arguably the most important domain, but it is often the most overlooked. Recent wars have shown the inability to
achieve the strategic goals (e.g. in Afghanistan) but also to understand foreign and complex
human environments.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 32 of 45
Cognitive warfare was forced upon the Western liberal democracies by challenging international actors who have strategised to avoid the military confrontation, thus blurring the
line between peace and war by targeting the weakest element: humans. CW which includes
the increasing use of NBICs for military purposes may provide a sure way of military dominance in a near future.
“Military power is of course one essential segment of security. But global security refers to a
broad range of threats, risks, policy responses that span political, economic, societal, health
(including cognitive health!) and environmental dimensions, none of these being covered by
your current domains of operations! Some international actors already use weapons that precisely target these dimensions, while keeping their traditional kinetic arsenal in reserve as
long as they possibly can. NATO, if it wishes to survive, has to embrace this continuum and
claim as its responsibility, together with its allies to, seamlessly, achieve superiority all across
it.”58
Raising awareness among Allies
While advances in technology have always resulted in changes in military organisations and
doctrines, the rapid advancements in technology, in particular in brain science and NBIC,
should force NATO to take action and give a greater consideration to the emergence of the
threats that represents Cognitive Warfare. Not all NATO nations have recognised this
changing character of conflicts. Declaring the Human as sixth domain of operations is a way
to raise awareness among the NATO Nations. NATO should consider further integrating
Human situational awareness in the traditional situation awareness processes of the Alliance.
Anticipating the trends
There is evidence that adversaries have already understood the potential of developing
human-related technologies. Declaring the Human Domain as a sixth domain of operations
has the potential to reveal possible vulnerabilities, which could otherwise amplify rapidly. It
is not too late to face the problem and help keep the dominance in the field of cognition.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 33 of 45
The Human Domain of operations could tentatively be defined as “the sphere of interest in
which strategies and operations can be designed and implemented that, by targeting the
cognitive capacities of individuals and/or communities with a set of specific tools and
techniques, in particular digital ones, will influence their perception and tamper with
their reasoning capacities, hence gaining control of their decision making, perception
and behaviour levers in order to achieve desired effects.”
Delays in declaring the Human Domain as a domain of operations may lead to fight the last
war.
Given that the process of declaring a new domain of operations is a lengthy process and given
the sensitivity of the topic, NATO needs to be fast in focusing on political/military responses
while capacity/threats of our opponents are still low.
Finally, ethical problems should be raised. Since there is no agreed international legal
framework in the field of neurosciences, NATO may play a role in pushing to establish an
international legal framework that meets the NATO Nations’ ethical standards.
Accelerating information sharing
Accelerated information sharing among Alliance members may help faster integration of
interoperability, to assure coherence across multi-domain operations. Information sharing
may also assist some nations in catching up in this area. In particular, surveillance of ongoing
international activities in brain science, and their potential dual-use in military and
intelligence operations should be undertaken and shared between Allies along with
identification and quantification of current and near-term risks and threats posed by such
enterprises.
Establishing DOTMLPFI components upstream The first step is to define the “human domain” in military doctrine and use the definition toconduct a full spectrum of capability development analysis, optimising the military for the most likely 21st century contingencies. Since the Human Domain complements the five others, each capability development should include the specificities of modern threats,
including those related to cognitive warfare and, more generally, the sixth domain of
operations. The Human Domain is not an end in itself but a means to achieve our strategic
objectives and to respond to a type of conflict that the military is not accustomed to dealing with.
Dedication of resources for developing and sustaining NATO Nations capabilities to prevent
escalation of future risk and threat by:
1) continued surveillance;
2) organisational and systemic preparedness;
3) coherence in any/all entities necessary to remain apace with, and/or ahead of tactical and
strategic competitors’ and adversary’s capabilities in this space.
Impact on Warfare Development
By essence, defining a new domain of operations and all the capabilities and concepts that go
along with it, is part of ACT’s mission.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 34 of 45
ACT should lead a further in-depth study with a focus on:
• Advancements on brain science initiatives that may be developed and used for nonkinetic and kinetic engagements.
• Different ethical systems that govern neuroscientific research and development. This
will mandate a rigorous, more granular, and dialectical approach to negotiate and resolve issues and domains of ethical dissonance in multi- and international biosecurity
discourses.
• Ongoing review and evaluation of national intellectual property laws, both in relation
to international law(s), and in scrutiny of potential commercial veiling of dual-use enterprises.
• Identification and quantification of current and near-term risks and threats posed by
such enterprise(s)
• Better recognizing the use of social and human sciences in relation with “hard” sciences to better understand the human environment (internal and external)
• Include the cognitive dimension in every NATO exercises by leveraging new tools and
techniques such as immersive technologies
Along with those studies, anticipating the first response (such as the creation of a new NATO
COE or rethink and adapt the structure by strengthening branches as required) and defining a
common agreed taxonomy (Cognitive Dominance/Superiority/Cognitive Center of Gravity
etc…) will be key tasks for ACT to help NATO keep the military edge.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 35 of 45
Conclusion
Failing to thwart the cognitive efforts of NATO’s opponents would condemn Western liberal societies to lose the next war without a fight. If NATO fails to build a sustainable and proactive basis for progress
in the cognitive domain, it may have no other option than kinetic conflict. Kinetic capabilities may dictate a tactical or operational outcome, but victory in the long run will remain solely dependent on the ability to influence, affect, change or impact the cognitive domain.
Because the factors that affect the cognitive domain can be involved in all aspects of human
society through the areas of will, concept, psychology and thinking among other, so that
particular kind of warfare penetrates into all fields of society. It can be foreseen that the future
information warfare will start from the cognitive domain first, to seize the political and
diplomatic strategic initiative, but it will also end in the cognitive realm.
Preparing for high-intensity warfare remains highly relevant, but international actors
providing NATO with specific strategic security challenges have strategised to avoid
confronting NATO in kinetic conflicts and chose an indirect form of warfare. Information
plays a key role in this indirect form of warfare but the advent of cognitive warfare is
different from simple Information Warfare: it is a war through information, the real target
being the human mind, and beyond the human per se.
Moreover, progresses in NBIC make it possible to extend propaganda and influencing strategies. The sophistication of NBIC-fueled hybrid attacks today represent an unprecedented
level of threat inasmuch they target the most vital infrastructure everyone relies on: the human mind . 59
Cognitive warfare may well be the missing element that allows the transition from military
victory on the battlefield to lasting political success. The human domain might well be the decisive domain, wherein multi-domain operations achieve the commander’s effect. The five
first domains can give tactical and operational victories; only the human domain can achieve
the final and full victory. “Recognising the human domain and generating concepts and capabilities to gain advantage therein would be a disruptive innovation.”

60

Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 36 of 45
“Today’s progresses in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive
science (NBIC), boosted by the seemingly unstoppable march of a triumphant troika made of
Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and civilisational “digital addiction” have created a much more
ominous prospect: an embedded fifth column, where everyone, unbeknownst to him or her, is
behaving according to the plans of one of our competitors.” August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader
NATO’s 6th Domain Bibliography and Sources Essays
August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO 6th Domain of Operations, September 2020
Dr. James Giordano, Emerging Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T): Current and Near-Term
Risks and Threats to NATO Biosecurity, October 2020 Article Nicolas Israël and Sébastien-Yves Laurent, “Analysis Facing Worldwide Jihadist Violence and Conflicts. What to do?” September 2020 Online Collaboration with Johns Hopkins University “Cognitive Biotechnology, Altering the Human Experience”, Sep 2020 “Cognitive Warfare, an attack on truth and thoughts”, Sep 2020 Under the direction of Professor Lawrence Aronhnime Contributors: Alonso Bernal, Cameron Carter, Melanie Kemp, Ujwal Arunkumar Taranath, Klinzman Vaz, Ishpreet Singh, Kathy Cao, Olivia Madreperla
Experiments DTEX (Disruptive Technology Experiment) – 7 October 2020
NATO Innovation Hub Disruptive Technology Experiment (DTEX) on disinformation.
Under the direction of Girish Sreevatsan Nandakumar (Old Dominion University)
Hackathon “Hacking the Mind” Run by Dr. Kristina Soukupova and the Czech Republic Defense and Security Innovation
Hub, October 2020.
https://www.hackthemind.cz
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 37 of 45
Annex 1
Nation State Case Study 1: The weaponisation of neurosciences in China. As described in the Five-Year Plans (FYPs) and other national strategies, China has identified and acknowledged the technical, economic, medical, military, and political value of the brain sciences, and has initiated efforts to expand its current neuroS/T programs. China utilises broader strategic planning horizons than other nations and attempts to combine efforts from government, academic, and commercial sectors (i.e., the “triple helix”) to accomplish cooperation and centralisation of national agendas. This coordination enables research projects andobjectives to be used for a range of applications and outcomes (e.g., medical, social, military).
As noted by Moo Ming Poo, director of China’s Brain Project, China’s growing aging population is contributing to an increasing incidence and prevalence of dementia and other neurological diseases. In their most recent FYP, China addressed economic and productivity concerns fostered by this aging population, with a call to develop medical approaches for neurological disorders and to expand research infrastructure in neuro S/T.
This growing academic environment has been leveraged to attract and solicit multi-national
collaboration. In this way, China is affecting international neuroS/T through
1) research tourism;
2) control of intellectual property;
3) medical tourism;
4) and influence in global scientific thought. While these strategies are not exclusive to neuroS/T; they may be more opportunistic in the brain sciences because the field isnew, expanding rapidly, and its markets are growing, and being defined by both share- and stake-holder interests.
Research tourism involves strategically recruiting renowned, experienced scientists (mostly
from Western countries), as well as junior scientists to contribute to and promote the growth,
innovation, and prestige of Chinese scientific and technological enterprises. This is apparent
by two primary efforts. First, initiatives such as the Thousand Talents Program (launched in
2008) and other programs (e.g., Hundred Person Program, Spring Light Program, Youth
Thousand Talents Program, etc.) aim to attract foreign researchers, nurture and sustain domestic talent, and bring back Chinese scientists who have studied or worked abroad. Further, China’s ethical research guidelines are, in some domains, somewhat more permissive than those in the West (e.g., unrestricted human and/or non-human primate experimentation), and the director of China’s Brain Project, Mu-Ming Poo, has stated that this capability to engage research that may not be (ethically) viable elsewhere may (and should) explicitly attract international scientists to conduct research in China.
Second, China continues to engage with leading international brain research institutions to
foster greater cooperation. These cooperative and collective research efforts enable China to
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 38 of 45
achieve a more even “playing field” in the brain sciences. China leverages intellectual property (IP) policy and law to advance (and veil) neuroS/T and other biotechnologies in several ways. First, via exploitation of their patent process by creating a “patent thicket”. The Chinese patent system focuses on the end-utility of a product (e.g., a specific neurological function in a device), rather than emphasising the initial innovative idea in contrast to the U.S. system. Thisenables Chinese companies and/or institutions to copy or outrightly usurp foreign patents and products. Moreover, Chinese patent laws allow international research products and ideas to be used in China “for the benefit of public health,” or for “a major technological advancement.” Second, the aforementioned coordination of brain science institutions and the corporate sector establishes compulsory licensing under Chinese IP and patent laws. This strategy (i.e., “lawfare”) allows Chinese academic and corporate enterprises to have economic and legal support, while reciprocally enabling China to direct national research agendas and directives through these international neuroS/T collaborations. China enforces its patent and IP rights worldwide, which can create market saturation of significant and innovative products, and could create international dependence upon Chinese neuroS/T. Further, Chinese companies have been heavily investing in knowledge industries, including artificial intelligence enterprises, and academic book and journal partnerships. For example, TenCent established a partnership with Springer Nature to engage in various educational products. This will allow a significant stake in future narratives and dissemination of scientific and technological discoveries.
Medical tourism is explicit or implicit attraction and solicitation of international individuals
or groups to seek interventions that are either only available, or more affordable in a particular locale. Certainly, China has a presence in this market, and at present, available procedures range from the relatively sublime, such as using deep brain stimulation to treat drug addiction, to the seemingly “science-fictional”, such as the recently proposed body-to-head transplant to be conducted at Harbin Medical University in collaboration with Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero. China can advance and develop areas of neuroS/T in ways that other
countries cannot or will not, through homogenising a strong integrated “bench to bedside”
capability and use of non-Western ethical guidelines.
China may specifically target treatments for diseases that may have a high global impact,
and/or could offer procedures that are not available in other countries (for either socio-political or ethical reasons). Such medical tourism could create an international dependence on Chinese markets as individuals become reliant on products and services available only in China, in addition to those that are “made in China” for ubiquitous use elsewhere. China’s growing biomedical industry, ongoing striving for innovation, and expanding manufacturing capabilities have positioned their pharmaceutical and technology companies to prominence in world markets. Such positioning – and the somewhat permissive ethics that enable particular aspects and types of experimentation – may be seductive to international scientists to engage research, and/or commercial biomedical production within China’s sovereign borders.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 39 of 45
Through these tactics of economic infiltration and saturation, China can create power hierarchies that induce strategically latent “bio-political” effects that influence real and perceived
positional dominance of global markets.
China is not the only country that has differing ethical codes for governing research. Of note
is that Russia has been, and continues to devote resources to neuroS/T, and while not uniformly allied with China, has developed projects and programs that enable the use of neurodata for non-kinetic and/or kinetic applications. Such projects, programs, and operations can
be conducted independently and/or collaboratively to exercise purchase over competitors
and adversaries so as to achieve greater hegemony and power.
Therefore, NATO, and its international allies must
4) recognise the reality of other countries’ science and technological capabilities;
5) evaluate what current and near-term trends portend for global positions, influence, and
power;
6) and decide how to address differing ethical and policy views on innovation, research, and
product development.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 40 of 45
Annex 2
Nation State Case Study 2: The Russian National Technology Initiative61
Russian President Vladimir Putin has explicitly stated intent to implement an aggressive
modernisation plan via the National Technology Initiative (NTI). Designed to grant an overmatch advantage in both commercial and military domains against Russia’s current and nearterm future key competitors, the NTI has been viewed as somewhat hampered by the nation’s
legacy of government control, unchanging economic complexity, bureaucratic inefficiency
and overall lack of transparency. However, there are apparent disparities between such assessment of the NTI and its capabilities, and Russia’s continued invention and successful deployment of advanced technologies.
Unlike the overt claims and predictions made by China’s scientific and political communities
about the development and exercise of neuroS/T to re-balance global power, explication and
demonstration(s) of Russian efforts in neuroS/T tend to be subtle, and detailed information
about surveillance and extent of such enterprise and activity is, for the most part, restricted to
the classified domain. In general, Russian endeavours in this space tend to build upon prior
work conducted under the Soviet Union, and while not broad in focus, have gained relative
sophistication and capability in particular areas that have high applicability in non-kinetic
disruptive engagements. Russia’s employments of weaponised information, and neurotropic
agents have remained rather low-key, if not clandestine (and perhaps covert), often entail nation-state or non-state actors as proxies, and are veiled by a successful misinformation campaign to prevent accurate assessment of their existing and developing science and technologies.
Military science and technology efforts of the USSR were advanced and sustained primarily
due to the extensive military-industrial complex which, by the mid-1970s through 1980s, is
estimated to have employed up to twenty percent of the workforce. This enabled the USSR to
become a world leader in science and technology, ranked by the U.S. research community as
second in the world for clandestine S&T programs (only because the overall Soviet system of
research and development (R&D) was exceptionally inefficient, even within the military sector). The collapse of the USSR ended the Soviet military-industrial complex, which resulted in
significant decreases in overall spending and state support for R&D programs. Any newly
implemented reforms of the post-Soviet state were relatively modest, generating suboptimal
R&D results at best. During this time, Russian R&D declined by approximately 60% and aside
from the Ministries’ involvement with the military sector, there was a paucity of direct cooperation between Russian R&D institutions and operational S&T enterprises. This limited interaction, was further compounded by a lack of resources, inability to bring new technologyto markets, absent protections for intellectual property, and “brain drain” exodus of talented
researchers to nations with more modern, cutting-edged programs with better pay and opportunities for advancement.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 41 of 45
Recognising the inherent problems with the monoculture of the Russian economic and S&T
ecosystems, the Putin government initiated a process of steering Russia toward more lucrative, high-tech enterprises. The NTI is ambitious, with goals to fully realise a series of S&T/
R&D advancements by 2035. The central objective of the NTI is establish “the program for
creation of fundamentally new markets and the creation of conditions for global technological
leadership of Russia by 2035.” To this end, NTI Experts and the Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI) identified nine emerging high-tech markets for prime focus and penetrance, including neuroscience and technology (i.e., what the ASI termed “NeuroNet”). Substantive investment in this market is aimed at overcoming the post-Soviet “resource curse”, by capitalising on the changes in global technology markets – and engagement sectors – to expand both economic and military/intelligence priorities and capabilities. According to the ASI, NeuroNet is focused upon “distributed artificial elements of consciousness and mentality”, withRussia’s prioritisation of neuroS/T being a key factor operative in influence operations directed and global economies and power. Non-kinetic operations represent the most viable intersection and exercise of these commercial, military, and political priorities, capabilities, and foci of global influence and effect(s).
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 42 of 45
Notes
Robert P. Kozloski, https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2018/02/01/knowing_your 1 –
self_is_key_in_cognitive_warfare_112992.html, February 2018
Green, Stuart A. “Cognitive Warfare.” The Augean Stables , Joint Military Intelligence College, July 2008, 2
http://www.theaugeanstables.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Green-Cognitive-Warfare.pdf.
Clint Watts, (2018 ) Messing with the Enemy, HarperCollins 3
As defined by Wikipedia, a sock puppet or sockpuppet is an online identity used for purposes of deception. It 4
usually refers to the Russian online activism during the US electoral campaign 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Sock_puppet_account
https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/2019-11/CognitiveWarfare.pdf 5
Dr Zac Rogers, in Mad Scientist 158, (July 2019), https://madsciblog.tradoc.army.mil/158-in-the-cognitive- 6
war-the-weapon-is-you/
7 August Cole-Hervé Le Guyader, NATO 6th Domain of Operation, 2020
Ibid. 8
Alicia Wanless, Michael Berk (2017), Participatory Propaganda: The Engagement of Audiences in the Spread of 9
Persuasive Communications: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329281610_Participatory_Propaganda_The_Engagement_of_Audiences_in_the_Spread_of_Persuasive_Communications
10 Jacques Ellul, (1962) Propaganda, Edition Armand Colin
Matt Chessen, The MADCOM Future: How AI will enhance computational propaganda, The Atlantic Council, 11
Sep 2017
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/al_economics 12
Shoshana Zuboff, (2019) The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, Public Affairs 13
Peter W. Singer, Emerson T. Brooking (2018) LikeWar The Weaponisation of Social Media, HMH Edition page 14
95
Victoria Fineberg, (August 2014 ) Behavioural Economics of Cyberspace Operations, Journal of Cyber Security 15
and Information Systems Volume: 2
Shoshana Zuboff, (2019) The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, Public Affairs 16
17 Michael J Mazarr, (July 2020) Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, Virtual Territorial Integrity: The Next International Norm, in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, IISS
18 Bernard Claverie and Barbara Kowalczuk, Cyberpsychology, Study for the Innovation Hub, July 2018
Dr Zac Rogers, in Mad Scientist 158, (July 2019), https://madsciblog.tradoc.army.mil/158-in-the-cognitive- 19
war-the-weapon-is-you/
Haselton MG, Nettle D, Andrews PW (2005). “The evolution of cognitive bias.”. In Buss DM (ed.). The Handbook 20
of Evolutionary Psychology
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 43 of 45
Wikipedia lists more than 180 different cognitive biases: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias 21
Lora Pitman (2019)“The Trojan horse in your Head: Cognitive Threats and how to counter them” ODU Digital 22
Commons
Robert P. Kozloski, https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2018/02/01/knowing_your 23 –
self_is_key_in_cognitive_warfare_112992.html, February 2018
Peter W. Singer, Emerson T. Brooking (2018) LikeWar The Weaponisation of Social Media, HMH Edition page 24
165
Dominique Moïsi (2010) The Geopolitics of Emotion, Edition Anchor. 25
26 Christophe Jacquemart (2012), Fusion Froide Edition
Fogg, B.J. (2003). Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Morgan Kauf 27 –
mann Publishers.
28 https://mwi.usma.edu/mwi-video-brain-battlefield-future-dr-james-giordano/
Maryanne Wolf, (2007)“Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain” HarperCollins 29
Bernard Stiegler, https://www.observatoireb2vdesmemoires.fr/publications/video-minute-memoire-vers- 30
une-utilisation-raisonnee-du-big-data 2019
31 https://pphr.princeton.edu/2017/04/30/are-video-games-really-mindless/
32“Never has a medium been so potent for beauty and so vulnerable to creepiness. Virtual reality will test us. It will amplify
our character more than other media ever have.” Jaron Lanier, (2018) Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters with
Reality and Virtual Reality, Picador Edition
Philosopher Thomas Metzinger: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2079601-virtual-reality-could-be-an- 33
ethical-minefield-are-we-ready/
Gayannée Kedia, Lasana Harris, Gert-Jan Lelieveld and Lotte van Dillen, (2017) From the Brain to the Field: 34
The Applications of Social Neuroscience to Economics, Health and Law
35 Pr. Li-Jun Hou, Director of People’s Liberation Army 202nd Hospital, (May 2018), Chinese Journal of Traumatology,
36 For more on the definition of “dual use” in neuro S/T, see Dr. James Giordano’s essay October 2020
National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Emerging and Readily Available 37
Technologies and National Security: A Framework for Addressing Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues.
Ibid. 38
39 Giordano J. (2014). Intersections of “big data”, neuroscience and national security: Technical issues and derivative concerns. In: Cabayan H et al. (eds.) A New Information Paradigm? From Genes to “Big Data”, and Instagrams to Persistent Surveillance: Implications for National Security, p. 46-48. Department of Defense; Strategic Multilayer Assessment Group- Joint Staff/J-3/Pentagon Strategic Studies Group.
Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions 40
DeFranco JP, DiEuliis D, Bremseth LR, Snow JJ. Giordano J. (2019). Emerging technologies for disruptive ef 41 –
fects in non-kinetic engagements. HDIAC Currents 6(2): 49-54.
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 44 of 45
Parag Khanna, Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilisation (New York Random House, 2016) 42
43 Megan Bell, An Approachable Look at the Human Domain and why we should care (2019), https://othjournal.com/
2019/06/17/an-approachable-look-at-the-human-domain-and-why-we-should-care/
Vladimir Vasilyevich Karyakin, (2012) “The Era of a New Generation of Warriors—Information and Strategic 44
Warriors— Has Arrived,” Moscow, Russia, Nezavisimaya Gazeta Online, in Russian, April 22, 2011, FBIS SOV
GILES, SHERR et SEABOYER (2018), Russian Reflexive Control, Royal Military College of Canada, Defence 45
Research and Development Canada.
46 Elsa B. Kania, Prism Vol.8, N.3, 2019
Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, China Brief, (Sep 2019) https://jamestown.org/program/cognitive-domain- 47
operations-the-plas-new-holistic-concept-for-influence-operations/
Ibid. 48
Hai Jin, Li-Jun Hou, Zheng-Guo Wang, (May 2018 )Military Brain Science – How to influence future wars, 49
Chinese Journal of Traumatology
50 August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO ’s 6th Domain, September 2020
51 Maj. Gen. Robert H. Scales, (2006), http://armedforcesjournal.com/clausewitz-and-world-war-iv/
52 Alan Beyerchen, “Clausewitz, Nonlinearity and the Unpredictability of War,” International Security, 17:3 (Winter, 1992)
53 August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO ’s 6th Domain, September 2020
“Analysis Facing Worldwide Jihadist Violence and Conflicts. What to do?” Article for the Innovation Hub, 54
Nicolas Israël and Sébastien-Yves LAURENT, September 2020
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/head-strong/201408/psychology-and-less-lethal-military-strategy

55 –
56 Generals Odierno, Amos and Mc Raven, Strategic Landpower, NPS Publication 2014
“Analysis Facing Worldwide Jihadist Violence and Conflicts. What to do?” Article for the Innovation Hub, 57
Nicolas Israël and Sébastien-Yves LAURENT, September 2020
58 August Cole, Hervé Le Guyader, NATO 6th Domain of Operations, September 2020
59 Hervé Le Guyader, the Weaponisation of Neurosciences, Innovation Hub Warfighting Study February 2020
Ibid. 60
Ibid. 61
Innovation Hub – Nov 2020 Page 45 of 45

COGNITIVE LETHAL AUTONOMOUS WEAPONS SYSTEMS (CLAWS) Potentially used up on that civilian world population

by Carolyn Sharp | Nov 5, 2021

With the debut of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS) in combat, opponents of LAWS have called on States to fast-track the creation of international law that either bans the use of these weapons or mandates meaningful human control over them. If LAWS are used more broadly in future combat, then the latter would ensure a check on the autonomous technology’s limitations, such as rigidness (inability to subjectively analyze situations and modify behavior to changing circumstances), non-explainability (inability to understand the machine’s decision-making processes), and potential biases. In addition to mitigating technology-based limitations, opponents argue that meaningful human control would also preserve the possibility for compassionate behavior and emotion in combat.’

Neuromorphic Computing

While human emotion cannot be experienced by artificial intelligence (AI) and is therefore out of the scope of current technological remedy, an emerging AI may soon address LAWS’s operational limitations.[1] Specifically, neuromorphic computing, the next generation of AI, may allow LAWS to function in a manner more comparable to a human combatant. Where previous generations of AI draw inspiration from biology, neuromorphic computing actually mimics the functions of a brain, which allows the technology to support dynamic learning in the context of complex and unstructured data.

This shift to biologically accurate operations is made possible by moving away from the traditional computational architectures found in deep neural networks, generally known as the von Neumann architecture, and towards a neural network that operates similar to the brain. The latter functions through spikes of encoded information, and in simple terms, the brain-like function of these spiking neural networks (SNNs) operate in a manner analogous to a drum. Stated further:

Drums can respond with different and complex vibration states when they are stimulated, and they can be also understood on computational terms: input (hits), rules (physical laws, physical constraints such as material, tension, etc.), and outputs (vibration, sounds, normal modes). Indeed, the brain has many more similarities with a dynamical system as a drum than with digital computers, which are based on discrete states…. In abstract terms, drums are also “computing” and processing information, but this information processing is a dynamical reaction from external/internal stimuli more than a formal calculation process.[2]

Thus, by mimicking the processes of the brain “the various computational elements are mixed together and the system is dynamic, based on a ‘learning’ process by which the various elements of the system change and readjust depending on the type of stimuli they receive.”[3]

Advantages

This mode of computing is advantageous (with respect to conventional AI) for three main reasons. First, the spikes—i.e., the discrete events that take place at points in time—allow for faster propagation of information. This can also lead to the possibility of pseudo-simultaneous information processing when combined with an event-based sensor. Second, computing via spikes leads to increases in computational efficiency and decreases in power consumption. In comparison, traditional computations where information is repeatedly shuttled between functional units such as memory (MU), control processing (CPU), arithmetic/logic (ALU), and data paths can lead to the von Neumann bottleneck. Third, SNN’s energy efficiency allows for available processing power to increase as well. In other words, scaling up the neural capacity increases the ability to solve larger, more complex problems.

In sum, AI technology that is modeled to mimic the brain is better suited than conventional AI to adapt to context-specific situations. More specifically, emulating the principles of neural information processing enables the technology to function in a cognitive paradigm. This means that the technology can quickly plan, anticipate, and respond to complex and unstructured data.

By incorporating brain-like capabilities into technology such as LAWS these cognitive LAWS (CLAWS) could, in turn, employ more human-like discretion in targeting decisions. This is especially salient with regard to the law of armed conflict (LOAC) targeting principles of distinction, proportionality, and military necessity, which all require context-specific judgements. For example, the principle of distinction in Article 48 of Additional Protocol I requires that military operations be directed only at military objectives. Such distinctions are especially imperative in today’s urban battlefields where combatants and civilians exist side-by-side. In these circumstances the challenge lies in amending behavior based on the complex possibilities presented. This requires the decision maker to carefully observe conditions and adjust behavior in relation to unfolding information, a task that entails “on-site” learning and flexibility.

In the case of LAWS, which cannot “learn” dynamically, rigid decision-making capabilities may be problematic for a fully autonomous operation in unpredictable conditions. However, with CLAWS’s on-chip learning they could “interpret the features extracted from images, perceive and analyze multi-faceted situations during an attack, and adapt behavior based on the information gathered.” [4] This brain-like capability highlights CLAWS’s potential for making the context-specific decisions required by the targeting principles of the LOAC for fully autonomous operations.

Additionally, CLAWS could also be capable of probabilistic computing. This is important because the system’s rationale and decision-making processes could be accessible for review, which would allow for analysis regarding the system’s reliability and bias. Thus, CLAWS have the potential to “conduct complex decision making by managing, planning, anticipating, and adapting to unstructured battlefield environments, all with amplified efficiency and in an environment of reduced bias and increased transparency.”[5]

Limitations

While the future use of CLAWS seems promising, the neuromorphic technology necessary for CLAWS’ success is still in development. Furthermore, novel issues arising from the use of biologically realistic processors are still being addressed, such as an instability that is characteristic of a sleep-deprived state. Nevertheless, based on the mounting success of neuromorphic computing, it is likely that this technology will eventually be incorporated into specialized products, including weapons of future combat. With the prospective introduction of CLAWS, opponents’ technology-based objections to the use of LAWS may be overcome. However, their concerns regarding the preservation of emotion in combat would remain unresolved because CLAWS would be incapable of feeling emotion.

While the lack of emotion may seem trivial, respect and honor have been integral to combat and central to the warrior’s code of conduct. The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual notes that “the principle of honor draws from warriors’ codes from a variety of cultures and time periods,” and that “[h]onor demands a certain mutual respect between opposing military forces.” Therefore, if respect is a fundamental aspect of war regulations, then ensuring its role in combat is critical. Solutions that account for this element of warfare will be imperative for the successful use of CLAWS.

Conclusion

Ultimately, the future of combat demands innovative proposals, and weapons systems such as CLAWS can provide pertinent solutions to increasingly technical and automatized warfare. By incorporating cognitive processes that mimic biology, not only can CLAWS effect a human-like discretion in targeting decisions, but their technological capabilities can also contribute to more exacting results. This amalgamation of intelligent and functional dexterity may ultimately yield an end result of unmatched performance in future warfare.

***

Carolyn Sharp is a law student at Brigham Young University. Carolyn focuses her research on the impacts of advanced technology on international law and the law of armed conflict.

***

Footnotes

[1] Carolyn Sharp, Status of the Operator: Biologically Inspired Computing as Both a Weapon and an Effector of Laws of War Compliance, 28 Rich. J.L. & Tech., no. 1 (2021).

[2] Camilo Miguel Signorelli, Can Computers Become Conscious and Overcome Humans?, Frontiers In Robotics and AI 1, 2 (2018).

[3] Neuromorphic Computing: From Materials to Systems Architecture, Report of a Roundtable Convened to Consider Neuromorphic Computing Basic Research Needs, 7 (U.S. Dept. of Energy 2015).

[4] Carolyn Sharp, Status of the Operator: Biologically Inspired Computing as Both a Weapon and an Effector of Laws of War Compliance, 28 Rich. J.L. & Tech., no. 1 (2021).

[5] Id.

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Digital DNA through your digital twin in the sentient-world-simulation

Perhaps your real life is so rich you don’t have time for another.

Even so, the US Department of Defense (DOD) may already be creating a copy of you in an alternate reality to see how long you can go without food or water, or how you will respond to televised propaganda.

The DOD is developing a parallel to Planet Earth, with billions of individual “nodes” to reflect every man, woman, and child this side of the dividing line between reality and AR.

Called the Sentient World Simulation (SWS), it will be a “synthetic mirror of the real world with automated continuous calibration with respect to current real-world information”, according to a concept paper for the project.

“SWS provides an environment for testing Psychological Operations (PSYOP),” the paper reads, so that military leaders can “develop and test multiple courses of action to anticipate and shape behaviors of adversaries, neutrals, and partners”.

SWS also replicates financial institutions, utilities, media outlets, and street corner shops. By applying theories of economics and human psychology, its developers believe they can predict how individuals and mobs will respond to various stressors.

SEAS can display regional results for public opinion polls, distribution of retail outlets in urban areas, and the level of unorganization of local economies, which may point to potential areas of civil unrest

Yank a country’s water supply. Stage a military coup. SWS will tell you what happens next.

“The idea is to generate alternative futures with outcomes based on interactions between multiple sides,” said Purdue University professor Alok Chaturvedi, co-author of the SWS concept paper.

Chaturvedi directs Purdue’s laboratories for Synthetic Environment for Analysis and Simulations, or SEAS – the platform underlying SWS. Chaturvedi also makes a commercial version of SEAS available through his company, Simulex, Inc.

SEAS users can visualise the nodes and scenarios in text boxes and graphs, or as icons set against geographical maps.

Corporations can use SEAS to test the market for new products, said Chaturvedi. Simulex lists the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and defense contractor Lockheed Martin among its private sector clients.

The US government appears to be Simulex’s number one customer, however. And Chaturvedi has received millions of dollars in grants from the military and the National Science Foundation to develop SEAS.

Chaturvedi is now pitching SWS to DARPA and discussing it with officials at the US Department of Homeland Security, where he said the idea has been well received, despite the thorny privacy issues for US citizens.

Research: Key Criteria for Evaluating Kubernetes Data Protection

In fact, Homeland Security and the Defense Department are already using SEAS to simulate crises on the US mainland.

The Joint Innovation and Experimentation Directorate of the US Joint Forces Command (JFCOM-J9) in April began working with Homeland Security and multinational forces over “Noble Resolve 07”, a homeland defense experiment.

 SEAS (as will SWS) provides figures for specific economic sectors, and helps military, intel and marketing people visualize their global connections. Users can vary export and import figures for manufactured goods, for example, to gauge the potential impacts on other sectors

In August, the agencies will shift their crises scenarios from the East Coast to the Pacific theatre.

JFCOM-J9 completed another test of SEAS last year. Called Urban Resolve, the experiment projected warfare scenarios for Baghdad in 2015, eight years from now.

JFCOM-9 is now capable of running real-time simulations for up to 62 nations, including Iraq, Afghanistan, and China. The simulations gobble up breaking news, census data, economic indicators, and climactic events in the real world, along with proprietary information such as military intelligence.

Military and intel officials can introduce fictitious agents into the simulations (such as a spike in unemployment, for example) to gauge their destabilising effects on a population.

Officials can also “inject an earthquake or a tsunami and observe their impacts (on a society)”, Chaturvedi added.

Jim Blank, modelling and simulation division chief at JFCOM-J9, declined to discuss the specific routines military commanders are running in the Iraq and Afghanistan computer models. He did say SEAS might help officers determine where to position snipers in a city square, or to envision scenarios that might emerge from widespread civil unrest.

SEAS helps commanders consider the multitude of variables and outcomes possible in urban warfare, said Blank.

“Future wars will be asymetric in nature. They will be more non-kinetic, with the center of gravity being a population.”

The Iraq and Afghanistan computer models are the most highly developed and complex of the 62 available to JFCOM-J9. Each has about five million individual nodes representing things such as hospitals, mosques, pipelines, and people.

The other SEAS models are far less detailed, encompassing only a few thousand nodes altogether, Blank said.

Feeding a whole-Earth simulation will be a colossal challenge.

“(SWS) is a hungry beast,” Blank said. “A lot of data will be required to make this thing even credible.”

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Alok Chaturvedi wants SWS to match every person on the planet, one-to-one.

Right now, the 62 simulated nations in SEAS depict humans as composites, at a 100-to-1 ratio.

One organisation has achieved a one-to-one level of granularity for its simulations, according to Chaturvedi: the US Army, which is using SEAS to identify potential recruits.

Chaturvedi insists his goal for SWS is to have a depersonalised likeness for each individual, rather than an immediately identifiable duplicate. If your town census records your birthdate, job title, and whether you own a dog, SWS will generate what Chaturvedi calls a “like someone” with the same stats, but not the same name.

Of course, government agencies and corporations can add to SWS whatever personally-identifiable information they choose from their own databases, and for their own purposes.

And with consumers already giving up their personal information regularly to websites such as MySpace and Twitter, it is not a stretch to imagine SWS doing the same thing.

“There may be hooks through which individuals may voluntarily contribute information to SWS,” Chaturvedi said.

SEAS bases its AI “thinking” on the theories of cognitive psychologists and the work of Princeton University professor Daniel Kahneman, one of the fathers of behavioural economics.

Chaturvedi, as do many AR developers, also cites the work of positive psychology guru Martin Seligman (known, too, for his concept of “learned hopelessness”) as an influence on SEAS human behaviour models. The Simulex website says, if a bit vaguely, SEAS similarly incorporates predictive models based upon production, marketing, finance and other fields.

But SWS may never be smart enough to anticipate every possibility, or predict how people will react under stress, said Philip Lieberman, professor of cognitive and linguistic studies at Brown University.

“Experts make ‘correct’ decisions under time pressure and extreme stress that are not necessarily optimum but work,” said Lieberman, who nevertheless said the simulations might be useful for anticipating some scenarios.

JFCOM’s Blank agreed that SWS, which is using computers and code to do cultural anthropology, does not include any “hard science at this point”.

“Ultimately,” said Blank, “the guy to make decision is the commander.” ®

Research: Key Criteria for Evaluating Kubernetes Data Protection

Activities are being organized around the world — by victims of CyberTorture worldwide

Targeted Individual Day. Aug 29th was a success.

 

Activities are being organized around the world — by victims of Electronic Torture worldwide– to inform the public that Aug 29th is “Targeted Individual Day.” For the first time ever Professor Nils Melzer, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, will present to the 75th UN General Assembly Session in October his report on “Cybertorture” which are Forms of Computerized Remote Electronic Torture (CyberTorture) against Illegally Targeted Individuals worldwide.

 

UN Starts Investigation to Ban Cyber Torture

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UN Starts Investigation to Ban Cyber Torture

Magnus Olsson, Geneva 8 March 2020                                                                                                

UN Human Rights Council (HRC) Special Rapporteur on torture revealed during the 43rd HRC that Cyber technology is not only used for internet and 5G. It is also used to target individuals remotely – through intimidation, harassment and public shaming. 

On the 28th of February in Geneva, Professor Nils Melzer, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel Inhuman Degrading Treatment and Punishment, has officially confirmed that cyber torture exists and investigation is now underway on how to tackle it legally.

Electromagnetic radiation, radar, and surveillance technology are used to transfer sounds and thoughts into people’s brain. UN started their investigation after receiving thousands of testimonies from so-called “targeted individuals” (TIs).

Professor Nils Melzer is an expert in international law and since 2016 he holds the Human Rights Chair at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. His team has found evidence that Cyber technology is used to inflict severe mental and physical sufferings.

“Judges think that physical torture is more serious than cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment,” he told the Guardian on 21 February. “Torture is simply the deliberate instrumentalization of pain and suffering.” These psychological torture methods are often used “to circumvent the ban on torture because they don’t leave any visible marks”. (1)

Cyber psychological systems like cognitive radio are used to interrupt human perceptions and memory. They can also be used to spy on people violating personal integrity which could lead to corruption and slavery in society. Cyber torture is also called no-touch torture or brain-machine interface.

One way to handle this situation is to regulate new technologies and use AI control mechanisms by independent and impartial investigators. The evidence gathered could then be used to convict criminals easier and quicker in the future.

Professor Meltzer and his team is now underway to create an international legal framework covering cyber technologies that can cause torture which previously was hard to prove. In the future it may be necessary to establish Radio Frequency Spectrum police in order to protect humanity from cyber terrorism. Nils Meltzer also revealed to me personally that the HRC will release several reports on this subject soon in the future.

  1. Owen Bowcott, ‘UN warns of rise of ‘cybertorture’ to bypass physical ban’ (The Guardian, March 2020)      https://www.theguardian.com/law/2020/feb/21/un-rapporteur-warns-of-rise-of-cybertorture-to-bypass-physical-ban?fbclid=IwAR0mIvFNEpODW8KspG0XulW8MqkmzSSiO2gskQOgHicfxRjCTgKWV3vjlh0

On February 28, 2020, the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Professor Nils Melzer, issued his World Report on “Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.” This report included a definition of “Cybertorture,” the Crime Against Humanity where millions of targeted victims worldwide are remotely assaulted with Electromagnetic Weapons in actions directed via computer, often from Supercomputers.

(A/HRC/43/49) Cybertorture:

1. A particular area of concern, which does not appear to have received sufficient attention, is the possible use of various forms of information and communication technology (“cybertechnology”) for the purposes of torture. Although the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the internet has been repeatedly addressed by the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/32/L.20; A/HRC/38/L.10/Rev.1), torture has been understood primarily as a tool used to obstruct the exercise of the right to freedom of expression on the internet, and not as a violation of human rights that could be committed through the use of cybertechnology.

2. This seems surprising given that some of the characteristics of cyber-space make it an environment highly conducive to abuse and exploitation, most notably a vast power asymmetry, virtually guaranteed anonymity, and almost complete impunity. States, corporate actors and organized criminals not only have the capacity to conduct cyberoperations inflicting severe suffering on countless individuals, but may well decide to do so for any of the purposes of torture. It is therefore necessary to briefly explore, in a preliminary manner, the conceivability and basic contours of what could be described as “cybertorture”.

3. In practice, cybertechnology already plays the role of an “enabler” in the perpetration of both physical and psychological forms of torture, most notably through the collection and transmission of surveillance information and instructions to interrogators, through the dissemination of audio or video recordings of torture or murder for the purposes of intimidation, or even live streaming of child sexual abuse “on demand” of voyeuristic clients (A/HRC/28/56, para.71), and increasingly also through the remote control or manipulation of stun belts (A/72/178, para.51), medical implants and, conceivably, nanotechnological or neurotechnological devices.1 Cybertechnology can also be used to inflict, or contribute to, severe mental suffering while avoiding the conduit of the physical body, most notably through intimidation, harassment, surveillance, public shaming and defamation, as well as appropriation, deletion or manipulation of information.

4. The delivery of serious threats through anonymous phone calls has long been a widespread method of remotely inflicting fear. With the advent of the internet, State security services in particular have been reported to use cybertechnology, both in their own territory and abroad, for the systematic surveillance of a wide range of individuals and/or for direct interference with their unhindered access to cyber technology.2 Electronic communication services, social media platforms and search engines provide an ideal environment both for the anonymous delivery of targeted threats, sexual harassment and extortion and for the mass dissemination of intimidating, defamatory, degrading, deceptive or discriminatory narratives.

5. Individuals or groups systematically targeted by cybersurveillance and cyberharassment are generally left without any effective means of defence, escape, or self-protection and, at least in this respect, often find themselves in a situation of “powerlessness” comparable to physical custody. Depending on the circumstances, the physical absence and anonymity of the perpetrator may even exacerbate the victim’s emotions of helplessness, loss of control, and vulnerability, not unlike the stress-augmenting effect of blindfolding or hooding during physical torture. Likewise, the generalized shame inflicted by public exposure, defamation and degradation can be just as traumatic as direct humiliation by perpetrators in a closed environment.3 As various studies on cyber-bullying have shown, already harassment in comparatively limited environments can expose targeted individuals to extremely elevated and prolonged levels of anxiety, stress, social isolation and depression, and significantly increases the risk of suicide.4 Arguably, therefore, much more systematic, government-sponsored threats and harassment delivered through cybertechnologies not only entail a situation of effective powerlessness, but may well inflict levels of anxiety, stress, shame and guilt amounting to “severe mental suffering” as required for a finding of torture.5

6. More generally, in order to ensure the adequate implementation of the prohibition of torture and related legal obligations in present and future circumstances, its interpretation should evolve in line with new challenges and capabilities arising in relation to emerging technologies not only in cyberspace, but also in areas such as artificial intelligence, robotics, nanotechnology and neurotechnology, or pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, including so-called “human enhancement”.

1. Al Elmondi, “Next-generation nonsurgical neurotechnology”, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, available at www.darpa.mil/p…/next-generation-nonsurgical-neurotechnology.

2 See Human Rights Council resolutions 32/13 and 38/7. See, most notably, the 2013 disclosures by Edward Snowden of the global surveillance activities conducted by the United States National Security Agency and its international partners, see Ewan Macaskill and Gabriel Dance, “NSA files: decoded – what the revelations mean for you”, The Guardian, 1 November 2013.

3 Pau Pérez-Sales, “Internet and torture” (forthcoming).

4 Ann John and others, “Self-harm, suicidal behaviours, and cyberbullying in children and young people: systematic review”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 20, No. 4 (2018); Rosario Ortega and others, “The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study”, Aggressive Behavior, vol. 38, No. 5 (September/October 2012).

5 Samantha Newbery and Ali Dehghantanha, “A torture-free cyber space: a human right”, 2017.

THE SENTIENT WORLD SIMULATION: UPLOADING YOUR MIND TO A DIGITAL WORLD

THE SENTIENT WORLD SIMULATION: UPLOADING YOUR MIND TO A DIGITAL WORLD

It was with the development of the first supercomputers, system for controlling the mind; brain and behavior was established. This was a part of the new science of cybernetics, which became public 1948 when the American professor Norbert Wiener published his book with the same title. The researchers’ project of mind control is most often classified as behavior or cognitive manipulation. Already from the beginning, more than half a century ago, it was possible to intercept thoughts, memories, and sensory functions such as sight or hearing. Cybernetics was also the first science that could not only measure and analyze what it came in contact with, but also change these processes. From the early beginning it was a debate about the issue.

The scientific magazine Science had 14-pages in their 1956 November issue under the heading “Some Issues Concerning the Control of Human Behavior”, and Professor Carl R Rogers said: “We can choose to use our growing knowledge to enslave people in ways never dreamed of before, controlling them by means so carefully selected that they will perhaps never be aware of their loss of personhood”. He added the possibility for political use: “Of all the dictatorships espoused by utopists, this is the most profound, and incipient dictators might well find in this utopia a guidebook of political practice…”but mentioned the probable misuse in democratic countries. This scared many. In the USA books were published, articles written and speeches held by leading people about the danger. The threat of exploitation of humans by a remote control technology became apparent. The American professor of psychiatry Joost Meerloo, released his book “The Rape of the Mind” (1956) in which he said:“The tragic facts of political experiences in our age make it all too clear that applied psychological technique can brainwash entire nations and reduce their citizens to a kind of mindless robotism which becomes for them a normal way of living.”

 

The EU´s Ethical Board with the Swedish Professor Hermerén as chairman protested and wrote in their 2005-declaration to the EU-Commission: “Implants used for changing the identity, memory, self perception and perception of others should be forbidden”. But the Swedish military research (FOI) declares in their report of activities that their aim is to direct the cognitive functions of people for a life time: “FOI develops systems with emphasis on the interaction between people and technology. The goal is that the systems be designed that human cognitive potential, i.e. the ability to perceive, understand, and sorting information can be utilized for´maximum system effect.” An implanted nightmare of this new kind will become permanent if not made public by mass media. This development can only continue as long as it takes place without public knowledge. Journalists, social activists and sensible politicians, among others, will not want to live their lives with an electronic leash attached to their brain, like a kind of cattle, any more than the rest of the population do. It has to be the responsibility of all of us to make this public if we want to live as human beings, in freedom and with human rights in the 21st century here on Earth.

European Human Brain Project, and Pentagon ADVISOR REVEALS CONSCIOUS A.I. SUPERCOMPUTERS USED FOR MIND CONTROL

European Human Brain Project

 ADVISOR REVEALS CONSCIOUS A.I. SUPERCOMPUTERS USED FOR MIND CONTROL 

DARPA, European Human Brain Project, and Pentagon advisor Dr. James Giordano describes neuronanorobotic Brain to computer interface mind control weapons for remote monitoring and manipulation of brains neural circuitry. This allows an individuals consciousness to be cloned.

This allows an individuals consciousness to be cloned onto a their very own digital avatar in a Sentient World Simulation on a supercomputer. A direct link between a targeted individual and their digital avatar exists so that everything done in the real world occurs in the computer simulation. By manipulating the digital avatar in the computer simulation a persons thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, and behavior are manipulated in the real world. This is remote mind control. 21st Century MK ULTRA. This is not a conspiracy theory. This is not a joke. This is the real life matrix! For more of my videos on this topic click the links below: Enter the matrix: They Control Your Mind Through Your Virtual Avatar In The Sentient World Simulation.

https://youtu.be/Hn_kb6b6_F4 THE SENTIENT WORLD BRAIN SIMULATION OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS https://youtu.be/LheNcnuEbng MK ULTRA 2019 REMOTE MIND CONTROL THROUGH AMAZON CIA CLOUD COMPUTING ELECTRONIC BRAIN LINK https://youtu.be/6L8pwVcNwQk SOURCES 1. BRAIN TO CLOUD COMPUTER INTERFACE USING NEURALNANOROBOTICS: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/… 2. Human Systems Roadmap Review https://defenseinnovationmarketplace…. 3. Sentient World Simulation (SWS): A Continuously Running Model of the Real World https://krannert.purdue.edu/academics… 4. DETERRENCE IN THE 21st CENTURY: AN EFFECTS-BASED APPROACH IN AN INTERCONNECTED WORLD: http://nsiteam.com/social/wp-content/… 5. UNMANNED SYSTEMS INTEGRATED 2017-2042 DEFENSE RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING: https://www.defensedaily.com/wp-conte… 6. Official US defence and NATO documents confirm that autonomous weapon systems will kill targets, including civilians https://www.blacklistednews.com/The_P… 7. Big Data, Analytics & Artificial Intelligence The Future of Health Care is Here http://newsroom.gehealthcare.com/wp-c…

Znalezione obrazy dla zapytania weapons 5 g

This pledge has circled the neuroscience community…

Neuroethics of War at the Core

Curtis Bell,  Senior Scientist Emeritus at Oregon Health and Science University, has recently circulated a document which he is promoting as a “Pledge by Neuroscientists to Refuse to Participate in the Application of Neuroscience to Violations of Basic Human Rights or International Law.”  The full pledge is reproduced below, and can be accessed here. While individuals may wish to sign the pledge, what we view as most important is to develop a conversation regarding the merits of what Curtis has suggested.  Specifically, while many responsible neuroscientists may agree with the overall sentiment, they may not agree with all aspects of the pledge as written.  Whether you agree or not, this issue merits feedback from members of the neuroscience community in general and the neuroethics community in particular.

Pledge by Neuroscientists to Refuse to Participate in the Application of Neuroscience to Violations of Basic Human Rights or International Law.

Neuroscientist Dr. James Giordano. Neuro-Weapons. Directed Energy Weapons. Brain Implants.

Some keypoints of DARPA / neuroscientist Dr. James Giordano: https://clinicalbioethics.georgetown…. Presenting developments in the field of ‘Neuro-Weapons’. ‘The Brain is the Battlefield of the Future’ on 09/25/18 at the Modern War Institute, United States Military Academy West Point. https://mwi.usma.edu/mwi-video-brain-…

The Lilly Wave and psychotronic warfare…

The Lilly Wave and psychotronic warfare

The Lilly Wave was found by John C Lilly and is, in most cases, completely misunderstood as to its usage to affect the thoughts and behaviour of humans.[1]

It is described as a bi-phasic electric pulse which stimulates the neurons of the brain to resonate at a certain frequency, thus the Lilly wave has the ability to control the brainwave patterns of the brain.

There is however a far more advanced form and a largely unknown and suppressed purpose in the use of the Lilly Wave.

The water molecules within the brain can be made to resonate at a desired frequency, this causes the electrons that comprise the brains electrical voltages to also resonate at that same frequency.

It is not a requirement, as is understood by the majority of science, to implant electrodes to cause the brains water molecules to be entrained to a certain frequency, it can also be accomplished by any waveform that can penetrate the skull and then cause the entrainment of the brains water molecules.

For example, radio waves emitted at a frequency of 40hz, targeted at a persons brain, will entrain the water molecules to a degree of 40hz and thus the rest of the brains electrons will also resonate at that frequency.

In this manner it is possible to stimulate and control the brains wave patterns remotely, with electromagnetism and also acoustic waves. However, it is imperative to understand that if the wave is not bi-phasic it will result in damage to the brains neurons and cause what is termed, brain damage.

It is not the case that only the brains water molecules can be entrained, it is also true of the blood sugar. Iron within the cellular structure composing the neurons of the brain and various other elements, can also be entrained to resonate at a desired frequency. (Possibly the reason for the attack on tobacco, nicotine is a super blood sugar regulator)

If a molecule is targeted by a wave that resonates at the same frequency as that molecule, that molecule will explode, sugar is a crystal and crystals when stressed, broken or deformed, release an electric and electromagnetic charge, this is known as triboluminescence.

The effect of an exploding sugar crystal is quite damaging to the mind and brain, it creates extreme confusion, dizziness, and also a state best described as lack of awareness, or apathy.

The Lilly Wave frequency is a secret military application, it is known as the “madness” frequency.

The Los Angeles Riots are said to have been the first open test of its capacity to mass control anger and violent response from the mob.

Furthermore, there are other profound effects of entraining the brain and bloods iron molecules, one of which is to cause the iron to condense together via resonant attraction, and clump within the brain. This has the effect of causing the iron to be magnetised and rush to the top of your head, resulting in a rush of blood to the head and extreme confusion and dizziness, it can also be reversed which causes a draining of blood from the head, leading to all out unconsciousness.

In short, the Lilly Wave is best described as a targeted resonance of the brains molecules.
Use of the Lilly Wave can pretty much instal any brainwave pattern into the mind of any targeted human, such as the negative aspects already mentioned and also to create happiness, or the ability to control ones physical movements. An attack direct to the water molecules is by far the best method to achieve the desired aims.

It is possible to track the Lilly Wave through a spectrum analyser that you link up to a signal source, and if you know what wave forms to look for, in a TV signal for example, you can see all kinds of interesting things–like the Lilly wave.

As already stated the Lilly Wave was found by Dr. John Lily when he was working for NIH, (the National Institutes for Health), in 1959 when they first started implanting dolphin brains and discovered that they needed to give the dolphin brain a chance to respond.

Then they discovered that they could use these same waves on human beings. He was doing work for the Navy at that time, and he got out of that research because he felt so conflicted about what they were doing.

The Lilly Wave frequency will mostly be in the extremely low and sometimes in the ultra low frequency range, but they are complicated as they need to interact with certain brain molecules which have a resonant frequency of their own.
It is strange that the ELF and ULF ranges are classified or 10 MHz controlled frequencies.

Artificial Thought and Communication
This is the third step in the Blue Beam Project that goes along with the telepathic and electronically augmented two-way communication where ELF, VLF and LF waves will reach each person from within his or her own mind, from the Smart grid technology, convincing each of them that their own god is speaking to them from the very depths of their own soul. Such rays from satellites are fed from the memories of computers that have stored massive data about every human on earth, and their languages. The rays will then interlace with their natural thinking to form what we call diffuse artificial thought.

That kind of technology goes into the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s research where the human brain has been compared to a computer. Information is fed in, processed, integrated and then a response is formulated and acted upon. Mind controllers manipulate information the same way a computer for grammar manipulates information. In January 1991, the University of Arizona hosted a conference entitled, ‘The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Current and Emergent Phenomena and Biomolecular Systems.’

4G Wi-Fi At 2.45GHz Damages Fertility, 5G At Between 30-300GHz Will Do What?
Download the Lilly Wave

5G Battlefield Interrogation Platform

The Lilly Wave and psychotronic warfare

Since 4G (microwave) was implemented in 2010 we have had a major decline in health. With the roll out of 5G…it will be much worse. Right now we are at 2.5Ghz where this 5G will be at 60Ghz. That is a huge jump in frequency radiation.

The deployment of the latest technology that is being inserted on top of the existing mobile phone tech but is not the same as at present, is a subject that needs your attention. Because of the 5G platform, which is made up of small cell antennas everywhere, they will launch an unnatural and round the clock millimetre, milli-wave and microwave radiation transmission, that is far more potent than anything previously experienced from the electromagnetic spectrum. 5G will increase the current 700 to 5.8 billion microwaves per second for cell phone and Wi-Fi data to tablets and laptops to pulsed microwaves of 24 to 90 billion microwaves per second.

Qualcomm unveils first mmWave 5G antennas for smartphones

The U.S military use the millimetre waves (5G) which travel only a short distance, as a non lethal weapon for crowd control, because the waves effect the surface of the body and cause a burning of the skin at higher levels of power.

The wi-fi clouds formed in close communities are another aspect of this platform that affects the blood molecules direct, and will transform your emotional state by definition of what frequency they transmit through the Smart system.

5G is a system formed with full Legal protection.
$17 trillion Dollars is the figure said to be available for the roll out of this technology.
President Donald Trump wants to build his own 5G internet platform in the United States in response to China building the same across China.

Scientists do not fully understand the technology, specific to the mathematics relating to the waveforms created.

There are no safety checks at all carried out on the 5G platform.

Children absorb some 60% more microwave energy due to their moisture content and thus electromagnetic conductivity is greater than that of an adult. Suicidal tendencies are a sign of damage by these microwaves. Establishment scientist Professor Trevor Marshall, the director of the Auto Immunity Research Foundation in California said :

“The new 5G technology Millimetre waves producing photons of much greater energy than 4g and Wi-fi. Allowing this technology to be used without proving its safety is reckless in the extreme as the millimetre waves are known to have a profound affect on all parts of the human body.”

The waveforms used by 5G are known to be at the same frequencies as those used in our bodies at the level at which cellular processes take place, that means it can directly interferer with those cellular processes. There are 4500 cellular structures in the human body each communicating with the entire body. 40 leading scientists groups have warmed that the waveforms from 5G can be harmful to all living species.

Active Denial technology frequencies are included in the 5G platform. This tech can be beamed from planes and helicopters and stand alone vehicles. With this technology they can create many different physiological and neurological effects to the body by shifting frequencies.

Microwaves effect all living things on the planet except bacteria and virus.

5G is being seen as a technology that can create extinctions over five generations, this does not include bacteria and viruses which appear to get a boost from this technology in the ability to reproduce at a faster rate.

Full Range Electromagnetic Spectrometer is the only machine that will pick up the 5G transmitters which operate in a very narrow frequency range.

The plan for 5G is to ensure you are never more than 30 metres away from the 5G Grid..

Electromagnetic Radiation : Adverse Biological Effects – 1,600 accredited scientific studies
Currently Deployed Psychotronic Mind-Control Technologies
How Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Affect Biology Via Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC) Activation
Ground-Breaking 5G Tech Created In Tel Aviv

Note
[1] HAARP, GWEN, WI-FI, Cell Phone towers all of therm can carry the Lily Wave.
The Lilly Wave called a balanced bidirectional pulse pair found by John Cunningham Lilly is a carrier waveform that bypasses the mind’s subconscious defence systems. It has been monitored via oscilloscopes connected to homes A/C ground and neutral of power lines. It can be used to transmit mind control via ultrasonic (1 10 MHz) and electromagnetic wavelengths (600m to 1e-15m).

Electromagnetic wavelengths transmit long/short/FM wavelength radio waves, and TV/telephone/wireless signals or energies. They are also responsible for transmitting energy in the form of microwaves, infrared radiation (IR), visible light (VIS), ultraviolet light (UV), X-rays, and gamma rays. (1996) The Lilly wave can be neutralised via pink or white noise generators connecting to the non-voltage A/C ground and neutral of the homes power grid.

The goal was to find an electric current waveform with which animals could be stimulated through implanted electrodes for several hours per day for several months without causing irreversible changes in threshold by the passage of current through the tissue.

Many waveforms, including 60-cps. sine-wave current could apparently be used safely for these limited schedules of stimulation. They could not be used for the intensive, long-term schedule of chronic stimulation. Electric current passed through the brain can cause at least two distinct types of injury: thermal and electrolytic.

The technical problem in chronic brain stimulation is to stay above the excitatory threshold and below the injury threshold in the neuronal system under consideration. This result can be achieved most easily by the proper choice of waveforms and their time courses; and less easily by the choice of the range of repetition frequencies and train durations.

The previous wave forms used in neurophysiology and in neurosurgery injured the neurons when unidirectional current passed through the brain. Dr. Lilly developed a new electrical wave form to balance the current, first in one direction and then, after a brief interval, in the other. Thus ions moving in the neurons would first be pushed one way and then quickly the other way, stimulating the neurons and leaving the ions in their former positions within the neurons. This new wave form was called a balanced bidirectional pulse pair, or the Lilly Wave. Microscopic studies of brains stimulated with this balanced pulse pair showed that there was no injury of the neuronal networks from this kind Waveform of stimulating current :

pulse pairs of current resulting from quasi-differentiation, with passive electrical elements, of a rectangular pulse.
Measured at 2 percent of the peak, the duration of the positive pulse (upward) is 34 sec, and the duration of the negative pulse (downward) is 28 sec. stimulation.

Further Study
The 5G Zion Manipulation Platform And How It Works
Cloud Based Internet System Is Backdoored By Israel
Biological Attack on the Populations
Psychological Attack on the Populations
Modern warfare strategy against the populations coordinated by the Bilderberg Steering Committee
John C. Lilly, on Levels of Consciousness, 1971
John C. Lilly – ECCO
The Scientist: John C. Lilly
Lilly Wave Mind Control Broadcasted in Homes Wall AC DC Outlets
The Lilly Wave
Scalar and psychoenergetics
Currently Deployed Psychotronic Mind-Control Technologies
Plan to Sedate the Populations and Microwave Technology
The Pineal Gland, Electromagnetic Fields, ELF And Chemistry
Behaviour Change
Mental Health